Global Warming Current Affairs - 2019

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MOSAIC Expedition in Arctic

Among 300 scientists from the world, a 32 – year polar researcher from Kerala will be the only person to join MOSAIC expedition

MOSAIC expedition

MOSAIC is Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate. It is the largest Arctic expedition in the history. It is being conducted Alfred Wegner Institute of Germany. It helps researchers understand the impact of climate change. The expedition intends to parameterize geophysical, atmospheric and oceanographic variables of Arctic.

What is special about the expedition?

Previous studies were for shorter duration as the thick ice sheets in the Arctic prevent access in winter. This research vessel will lock itself into a large ice sheet and will drift along with it.

125 years ago, a Norwegian explorer managed to seal his wooden ship into the ice during his 3 -year expedition in the North Pole.


  • The researcher will study about climate change in Arctic. The shift in polar vortices that shifted south and blasted cold air in Florida and heat wave in Europe are some of the impacts that prove climate change in Arctic has global influence.
  • The mission is important to understand the processes in far north for the world leaders to make right decisions.

Railways Ministry signs MoU with CII for facilitation of green initiatives

Union Ministry of Railways signed Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Confederation of Indian Industries (CII) for facilitation of green initiatives in Indian Railways. The MoU would carry forward some major Green initiatives undertaken by Indian Railways as part of India’s contribution towards mitigation of global warming and combating climate change.

Key Highlights

Railways have been making concerted efforts to ensure cleanliness and hygiene in trains and on station premises.

Objectives of MoU-

  • Greening of Railway properties
  • Energy efficiency in manufacturing facilities and railway workshops
  • Demonstrative pilots of ‘net-zero energy buildings/railway stations’
  • Development of Green procurement policy, waste management policy, solid waste disposal, carbon neutrality, phytoremediation
  • Capacity and skill development by continuous sharing of best practices on energy and environment through training programmes

3 Coffee Table Publications: One each on Energy Efficiency, GreenCo Rating and Green Buildings (including railway stations) were also released for wide circulation as part of efforts taken by Indian Railways team as envisaged in MoU.


In 2016 Indian Railways & CII signed a MoU on Green Rating & Energy Efficiency Studies of IR’s Production Units & major workshops. After assessment in last 3 years 50 Railway units including workshops and production units, 12 Railway stations and 16 more buildings and other facilities have achieved GreenCo certification.

GreenCo rating system: It is developed by CII. It evaluates the green initiative and rate of performance of industrial units who are pursuing environmentally sustainable practice and also certifies green building, green campus and green schools etc.