Greenhouse Gases Current Affairs - 2019

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DMRC becomes India’s 1st project to receive Power from Waste-to-Energy

Delhi Metro has become first ever project in India to receive power generated from a waste-to-energy plant. The move is in continuation of Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) efforts to establish an environment-friendly network

Key Highlights

Steps Taken: Since beginning of June 2019, DMRC has started receiving 2 MW power from a 12 MW capacity waste-to-energy plant set up in Ghazipur (Uttar Pradesh). The power being received is being utilised at Vinod Nagar Receiving Sub-station (RSS) for meeting operational requirements of Pink Line of Delhi Metro.

Waste-to-energy Plant:

  • It is a state of the art facility, set up by East Delhi Waste Processing Company Limited (EDWPCL). It is based on a Public Private Partnership (PPP) model which involves government of Delhi, East Delhi Municipal Corporation (EDMC) and EDWPCL.
  • It can process over 1,500 tonnes per day (TPD) of waste and can generate 12 MW of green power. This plant is India’s first Euro norms compliant waste-to-energy facility.

Expectation:

  • DMRC is expected to use about 17.5 million units per annum from this plant but energy offtake will depend upon actual generation of plant.
  • The plant is estimated to mitigate more than 8 million tons of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) over the life of project thus combating global warming.

DMRC and Environment Initiatives

  • DMRC is a Centre-state Public Sector company that operates Delhi Metro, a rapid transit system serving Delhi, its satellite cities and National Capital Region (NCR) of India. Since its inception (May 1995), DMRC has been working continuously towards conservation of environment. Delhi Metro which began its operation in 24 December 2002 is first ever rail based organisation in world to claim carbon credits.
  • Recycling Facility: DMRC has commissioned a facility for recycling of Construction and Demolition (C&D) waste with a capacity of 150 tons per day at Rohini. It is based on Public Private Partnership (PPP) model with IL&FS Environmental Infrastructure & Services Ltd (IEISL).
  • Solar Power: DMRC produces 28 MW of solar power from various rooftop solar power plants, set up in its stations, depots as well as residential premises. It is also receiving solar power from off-site solar power plant at Rewa in Madhya Pradesh.
  • For construction work undertaken by DMRC, it plants 10 trees for each tree that is cut. About 4 lakh vehicles are being removed from streets because of mass transit operator, Delhi Metro.

China continues to use Banned Ozone-Depleting CFC: Study

According to a recent research published in journal Nature, China continues to use the banned ozone depleting chemical called CFC-11 in violation of Montreal Protocol.

Key Findings of Report

  • Despite being a signatory to Montreal Protocol, and agreeing to phase out the production of harmful CFC-11 in 2010, China continues to emit ozone depleting CFC-11 in violation of Montreal Protocol.
  • Suspicion: An initial study about a year ago reported new global emissions of CFC-11 gas, which many scientists, environmental groups and policymakers had suspected but were only able to locate source generally as East Asia.
  • Confirmation: New findings by international team of researchers confirmed about suspected region and claimed that emissions of ozone layer harming gas are coming from eastern China, primarily from its two heavily industrialised provinces namely Shandong province and Hebei province. These two provinces originate between 40% and 60 % of total global CFC-11 emissions from Eastern China.
  • Highlights: In years between 2008 and 2012, eastern China emitted an average of about 6,400 metric tonnes (MT) of CFC-11 per year, the emissions increased by 25% in 2012 and since 2013 CFC-11 emissions were on rise. This number then increased to an average of about 13,400 metric tonnes (MT) of CFC-11 per year in years between 2014 and 2017.
  • Reasons: China has world’s largest polyurethane foam market which accounts for about 40 % of world’s total consumption. The Chinese foam manufacturers have been using CFC-11 illegally to save on higher cost of alternatives like hydrochloro-fluorocarbons named HCFC-141b, which is supposed to be phased out in China by 2026. The research also found evidence that factories in Shandong province were still making and using gas to manufacture foam insulation.
  • Significance: The new research findings will add to international pressure on Chinese government to curtail the illegal use of CFC-11.

About CFC-11

  • It is also called as freon-11, Trichlorofluoromethane or R-11.
  • It is one of a class of compounds called chlorofluorocarbons that is responsible for destroying atmospheric ozone.
  • It is also a potent greenhouse gases (GHG) that contributes to atmospheric warming.
  • Before being included in production moratorium agreed in the Montreal Protocol of 1987 it was widely being used as a refrigerant.

About Montreal Protocol

  • It is a legally binding international pact signed in 1987 to preserve degradation of atmospheric ozone layer that blocks harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sun. Excessive amounts of some types of UV radiation can cause eye damage and skin cancer in people and are also harmful to crops and vegetation.
  • The protocol prescribe that consumption and production of compounds that deplete ozone (03) such as halons, carbon tetrachloride, stratosphere-chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and methyl chloroform-are to be phased out by 2000 (2005 for methyl chloroform).
  • According to World Meteorological Organization (WMO), hole in ozone layer is on path of recovery and reduction in atmospheric concentration of CFC-11 has made second-largest contribution to its decline since 1990s.