gross domestic product Current Affairs - 2020

Fifth Tranche of Atma Nirbhar Bharat Abhiyan announced

On May 17, 2020, the Union Finance Minister Nirmala Sitaraman announced the fifth and final tranche of Atma Nirbhar Bharat Abhiyan. The scheme is to implement several measures to fight COVID-19 at an allocated budget of Rs 20 lakh crore economic packages

Highlights

Under the fifth tranche of the scheme, the finance minister announced seven steps. This included MNREGA, health and education, decriminalization of Companies Act, businesses and COVID-19, Public Sector Enterprises, Ease of Doing Business, State Governments and related resources.

MNREGA

The GoI is to allocate Rs 40,000 crore for MNREGA scheme. This will help generate employment for 300 crore persons. It is to be noted that, earlier, the health and sanitation workers have been included under MNREGA. This was done during the phase of Swachh Bharat Mission.

The funds will be used to make additional enrolments under the scheme. Especially, the funds aim at employing the migrant workers who have returned to their home towns due to COCID-19.

Health and Education Sector

The health and education expenditure is to be increased. The GoI is to focus on improvising the infrastructure of these sectors. All districts will have infectious disease blocks set up. Also, public labs are to be set up at district level. A National Digital Health blueprint is to be implemented. Also, the GoI will increase research in health.

The top 100 universities are to be permitted begin online courses. “Mandodarpan”, an initiative to increase the psycho-social support of students, families and teachers is to be launched.

Also, an E-vidya programme to access digital and online education is to be launched. A TV channel focusing on students Classes 1 to 12 is to be launched.

Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code

No fresh insolvency proceedings will be initiated for one year. A special Insolvency framework will be notified under Section 240-A of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy code.

The minimum threshold to initiate insolvency processes has been increased from Rs 1 lakh to Rs 1 crore.

Decriminalization Companies Act

The majority of compoundable offences under Companies act are to be shifted to internal adjudicating mechanism. This will de-clog National Company Law tribunal and the criminal courts in the country.

Ease of Doing Business

The private companies that list non-convertible debentures on stock exchanges are to be considered as listed companies. Also, direct listing of securities by public companies are to be done in permitted foreign jurisdictions.

Public Sector Enterprises

A new public sector policy is to be brought in by the GoI. The new policy will allow private sector to participate all the key sectors along with the public sector units. The policy will also strategize key sectors. The strategy will be brought in such a way that at least at least one public sector will be there in every strategic sectors. The number of enterprises to be present in strategic sectors are four.

State Governments

Just like the Central Government, the state governments are also witnessing sharp drop in revenues. Around Rs 46,038 crores have been so far devolved to state as tax revenue. The advancing limits of states have been increased by 60%. Also, the GoI increased the number of days a state shall stay in overdraft situation.

The Central Government will now allow the states to borrow up to 5% of GSDP (Gross State Domestic Product). This means that the states can now borrow an additional amount of Rs 4.28 lakh crores.

Zero Pendency Courts Project

Zero Pendency Courts Project is the pilot project of the Delhi High Court. The pilot project was undertaken in certain subordinate courts of Delhi to identify benchmarks for different types of cases timelines, number of judges required, case flow management rules and a host of other relevant factors.

The project was also aimed to provide information on the judicial time required to dispose of a case together with the gathering stage wise details in each case.

Findings of the Study

The Zero Pendency Courts Project aimed to study the life cycle of cases to come up with optimal timelines for cases has made the following observations:

  • Delhi needs 43 more judges above the current strength of 143 to clear all the pending cases in one year.
  • Persisting delays have made the system less credible as litigants have to wait for decades to get their cases resolved.
  • As a result of the increase in the number of filings over the years, the pendency of cases is bound to increase if no proper targeted steps are taken to overcome the issue.
  • It was estimated that judicial delays cost India around 1.5% of its Gross Domestic Product annually.
  • The report identifies the absence of witnesses, unnecessary adjournments sought by the advocates or the parties, lesser number of judges and delay in the service of summons, especially to outstation parties as the reason for the persistent delays in case disposals.

The findings from the pilot project will aid in providing a new understanding required to solve the vexed problem of pendency in the Indian legal system.