Health Current Affairs

Indian scientists discovered insulin pills for diabetics

Indian scientists have discovered a pill form of insulin treatment,  so now diabetes patients would be spared from the pain of jabbing themselves with a needle every day.

The process to transform delivery of this therapy from a shot to a pill was a challenge because body’s digestive enzymes that are so good at breaking down food also break down insulin before it can get to work. Besides, insulin doesn’t get easily absorbed through the intestine into the bloodstream.

To overcome these hurdles, scientists combined two approaches to shield insulin from the digestive enzymes and then get it into the blood.

  • They packaged insulin in tiny sacs made of lipids, or fats, called liposomes, which are already used in some treatments. Then, they wrapped the liposomes in layers of protective molecules called polyelectrolytes.
  • To help these “layersomes” get absorbed into the bloodstream, they attached folic acid, a kind of vitamin B that has been shown to help transport liposomes across the intestinal wall into the blood.
About Diabetes
  • Diabetes suppresses the production or use of insulin, which is a hormone that helps blood glucose or blood sugar become absorbed into cells and gives them energy.
  • Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body doesn’t make enough insulin, and type 2 diabetes occurs when the body doesn’t make or use insulin very well, causing glucose to remain in the blood, which can lead to serious problems.

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Oxford researchers develop new malaria vaccine

In a major scientific development, scientists at Oxford University have developed a new malaria vaccine which can guard against the deadly mosquito-borne disease.

The vaccine has shown promising results in the first clinical trial in which some of the adult volunteers were completely protected against malaria.
It’s the first time that a vaccine has been shown to have a protective effect through a sufficiently high immune response involving cells called CD8 T cells. It is CD8 immune cells that are seen to vanguard a protective response against malaria in similar studies in mice.

How this vaccine is different from existing vaccines?

At present, every vaccine in use generates antibodies. But there are two divisions to the body’s immune system for combating infection: antibodies and T cells. The latest vaccine is different in a way that it aims to induce an immune response involving T cells particularly CD8+ T cells. CD8 T cells are vital because they are the main killer cells in the immune system. They can attack nearly all types of infected cells – in this case liver cells infected with the malaria parasite.

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