ICMR Current Affairs - 2019
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Every year World Cancer Day is observed on February 4. The day is observed to save millions of preventable deaths each year through education, raising awareness and by pressing governments and individuals across the world to take action against the deadly disease.
I Am and I Will
On the World Cancer Day, the Union for International Cancer Control launched a new 3-year campaign with the theme: “I Am and I Will”. The campaign is aimed to increase public-facing exposure and engagement to inspire the change that is required to build a cancer-free future for the world.
Burden of Cancer
The global burden of cancer is estimated to have increased to 18.1 million new cases and 9.6 million deaths in 2018. Approximately one in five men and one in six women worldwide develop cancer in their lifetime, and one in eight men and one in 11 women die from the disease.
In India around 2.25 million cases with over 1 lakh new cases being registered every year. The disease led to nearly 7 lakh deaths in 2018. The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) estimates that India is likely to register over 17 lakh new cases and report over 8 lakh deaths by 2020.
If some serious interventions are not made to alter the course of the disease, the global burden is expected to rise to close to 30 million new cases by 2040.
ICMR releases Antimicrobial Stewardship Guidelines to ensure judicious use of antibiotics in hospitals
Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has released Antimicrobial Stewardship Guidelines to advise hospitals in setting up Antimicrobial Stewardship Programmes (AMSP) to ensure judicious use of antibiotics in healthcare facilities. AMS guidelines aims to provide guidance in setting up structure and processes of AMSP in healthcare institutions, discusses essential elements of antimicrobial stewardship and diagnostic stewardship and provide information on tools that can be used to measure progress.
What is AMSP?
It is hospital-based programmes dedicated to improving antibiotic use. It is helpful in improving quality of patient care and safety through increased infection cure rates, reducing treatment failures and increasing the frequency of correct prescription for therapy and prophylaxis
Need for AMSP
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major public health challenge. Since inappropriate use of antibiotics is rampant in India, there is urgent need to improve antibiotic use in hospitals. The increasing consumption of antibiotics is one of key drivers of antimicrobial resistance seen in bugs.
Some of the key factors driving antimicrobial resistance in our country are irrational prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics, poor regulations around sale of antibiotics, self-medication, lack of education and awareness regarding responsible use of antibiotics.
National Health Policy, 2017, terms antimicrobial resistance as one of key healthcare issues and prioritises development of guidelines regarding antibiotic use, limiting over-the-counter use of antibiotics and restricting use of antibiotics as growth promoters in livestock. It is important to use the existing drugs judiciously.