INDC Current Affairs - 2020

Global Environment Outlook 2019: Findings about India

The United Nations Environment Programme has released the Global Environment Outlook 2019. The report makes the following observations about India:

  • India could save at least $3 trillion (Rs 210 trillion approx.) in healthcare costs if India implements policy initiatives which are consistent with ensuring that the globe didn’t heat up beyond 1.5 degrees Celsius by the turn of the century.
  • Among India’s commitments under INDC, India is on track to achieve the target of lowering the emission intensity of its GDP by 33-35% compared to 2005 levels by 2030 and increasing the total cumulative electricity generation from fossil-free energy sources to 40% by 2030.
  • To achieve the goal to limit the global temperature increase to 1.5.deg c, India needs to abandon plans to build new coal-fired power plants.

The Paris Accord of 2015 aims to keep global temperature rise this century well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius. But there has been limited progress by countries since then in committing to greenhouse gas emissions cut since then.

India to submit 2nd biennial report on greenhouse gas inventory to UNFCCC

India is mandated to submit a biennial update report containing updates of national greenhouse gas inventories and information on mitigation actions, needs and support received as a party to UNFCC.

The Union Cabinet chaired by PM Modi has approved the submission of second Biennial Update Report (BUR) to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), giving India’s national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory of 2014.

India’s greenhouse gas emissions in 2014

The Biennial Update Report contains five major components National Circumstances, National Greenhouse Gas Inventory, Mitigation Actions; Finance, Technology and Capacity Building Needs and Support Received and Domestic Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) arrangements. The BUR reports following figures about India’s greenhouse gas emissions:

  • In India, a total of 26,07,488 gigagram (Gg) CC-2 equivalent or around 2.607 billion tonnes of CC-2 equivalent of GHGs were emitted from all activities, excluding ‘land use, land use change and forestry’ (LULUCF) in 2014.
  • Net national GHG emissions after including LULUCF were 23,06,295 Gg CO2 equivalent or around 2.306 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent.
  • Energy sector accounted for 73 per cent, industrial processes and product use (IPPU) 8 per cent, agriculture 16 per cent and waste sector 3 per cent of emissions.
  • India is on course for achieving the target for emission intensity of the economy and share of non-fossil fuel-based power capacity.

India’s commitments under the Paris Agreement

India advocating the principle of common burden differential responsibility according to the respective capability has made three important commitments under the INDC. They are:

  • Reducing greenhouse gas emission intensity of India’s GDP by 33-35 per cent below 2005 levels by 2030.
  • 40 per cent of India’s power capacity would be based on non-fossil fuel sources.
  • Creating an additional ‘carbon sink’ of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of Co2 equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by 2030.

India’s commitments under the INDC’s are seen as most ambitious ones under the current circumstances.