India Current Affairs - 2020

India is world’s third largest producer of scientific articles: US Report

According to a latest report by US National Science Foundation (NSF), India has emerged as the world’s third largest publisher of science and engineering articles. As per the statistics compiled in report, China has topped the list followed by US.

Key Highlights of Report

China tops the list as it accounts for 20.67% of all global publications in scientific articles. In China, about 5,28,263 scientific articles were published in 2018. As per the report, China’s rate of research output has grown almost twice as fast as world’s annual average for last 10 years, while the output of US and European Union (EU) has grown at less than half world’s annual growth rate.

United States: follows China at second spot with about 4,22,808 global publications in science and engineering articles in 2018.

India: emerged as world’s third largest publisher of science and engineering articles after China (5,28,263) and US (4,22,808) in 2018, with about 1,35,788 science and engineering articles were published in country. Even though India has a long way to go as compared to US and China in terms of number of scientific article publications, its emergence as third largest publisher is mainly due to a phenomenal double-digit growth rate in last one decade from 2008 to 2018.

Top Ten: Other countries which made it to top 10 list are Germany (1,04,396), Japan (98,793), United Kingdom (97,681), Russia (81,579), Italy (71,240), South Korea (66,376) and France (66,352).

Global Output: Both China and India have increased their share of the growing world output. China produced 5% of global output in 2000 and grew to 21% in 2018, while India’s share rose from 2% to 5%t during this period.

Even though research papers from US and European Union (EU) continue to have the most impact, but, China has shown a rapid increase in producing impactful publications, as measured by references to journal articles and conference papers.

As measured by journal articles and conference papers, the Specialisation in scientific fields differs among countries. It shows that US, EU and Japan are more specialised in health sciences while China and India more specialised in engineering.

15 December: International Tea Day

International Tea Day is observed every year on 16 December since 2005. The day is celebrated in tea producing nations such as India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Vietnam, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi and Malaysia.

About International Tea Day

Objective: To draw global attention of governments and citizens to impact of global tea trade on workers and growers as well as requests for price supports and fair trade.

Background: International Tea Day celebrations and related Global Tea Conferences are jointly organized by trade union movements. The first International Tea Day was celebrated in New Delhi in 2005, with later celebrations being organized in Sri Lanka in 2006 and 2008.

May 21: Now International Tea Day

In October 2015, Indian government moved a proposal at the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Intergovernmental Group (IGG) on Tea expanding the observance of International Tea Day through UN FAO. Thereby, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) has now accepted India’s proposal and designated May 21 as International Tea Day. The month of May was selected as it’s the quality tea manufacturing season in most tea producing countries.

UNGA has invited all Members and observers of UN, organisations of UN system, other international/ regional organisations and other relevant stakeholders, including civil society, private sector and academia, to observe International Tea Day in an appropriate manner, so as to ensure rural development and sustainable livelihoods.

Significance: This move could provide much-needed push to create awareness for tea consumption.  Also as per UNGA, the observance of an International Tea Day will not only promote and foster collective actions to implement activities in favour of sustainable production and consumption of tea but will also raise awareness of its importance in fighting hunger and poverty.

What FAO IGG on Tea?

It is a forum for intergovernmental consultation and exchange on trends in tea’s trade/ prices/ production/ consumption, including regular appraisal of global market situation. ICG under FAO auspices, considers changes in national policies and examines their international effects in relation to current and prospective market situation.