India-Brazil Current Affairs
The Union Cabinet has apprised Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) signed between India and Brazil in October 2016 for cooperation in fields of Zebu Cattle Genomics and Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs).
The MoU aims to strengthen existing friendly relations between both countries and promote development of Genomics and ARTs in Cattle through joint activities to be implemented through mutually agreed procedures.
The MoU will promote and facilitate scientific cooperation and setting up of genomic selection programme in Zebu Cattle through (i) application of genomic in Zebu Cattle and their crosses and buffaloes (ii) application of ARTs in cattle and buffaloes (iii) capacity building in genomic and ART (iv) Related R&D in Genomics and ART in accordance with respective laws and regulations of two countries. It is covered under Rule 7 (d) (i) of 2nd Schedule of Government of India (Transaction of Business) Rules, 1961.
An implementation committee will be constituted with an equal number of representatives from both countries for purpose of regularly determining activities and developing work plans and subsequently their evaluation. It will be done through joint projects in fields of Productivity Improvement of buffaloes and cattle, for purpose of broadening existing knowledge base on sustainable dairy development and institutional strengthening.
Zebu Cattle (also known as indicine cattle or humped cattle), is a species or subspecies of domestic cattle originating in Indian subcontinent. They are characterised by fatty hump on their shoulders, a large dewlap, and sometimes drooping ears. They are well adapted to withstanding high temperatures, and are farmed throughout tropical countries. They are used as dairy cattle, draught oxen and beef cattle.
India and Brazil have finalised text of the Social Security Agreement (SSA). It will come in force by early 2018 after it is ratified. It will be the first such agreement between the BRICS countries.
This SSA takes forward the spirit of Goa Declaration adopted at 8th BRICS Summit, outcomes of the meetings of BRICS Labour & Employment Ministers held in June 2016 in Geneva and September 2016 in New Delhi.
Key Features of the agreement
- Detached workers of the two countries exempted from making social security contributions in either countries so long as they were making such contributions in their respective countries.
- Rights and obligations of nationals of both countries have been established. Equal treatment will be provided to nationals.
- Unrestricted payment of pensions will be provided to nationals even in the case of residence in the other contracting state.
- The requirements to be entitled to a pension can be met by aggregating the periods of insurance completed in India and Brazil, whereby each country will only pay pension for the insurance periods covered by its laws.
Once SSA between Brazil and India is brought into force, it will favourably impact the profitability and competitive position of companies of both countries with foreign operations in either countries by reducing their cost of doing business abroad. It will also help promote more investment flows between the two countries.
So far, India has signed and operationalized Social Security Agreements (SSAs) with 18 countries. They are Australia, Belgium, Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Japan, Luxembourg, Hungary, Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, Norway, Switzerland, and South Korea.