India-Nepal Current Affairs - 2020

India-Nepal sign MoU

On June 15, 2020 India and Nepal signed a Memorandum of Understanding to improve infrastructure of the Pashupatinath temple complex.


The Memorandum of Understanding was signed between the Federal Affairs ministry of Nepal and Indian Embassy. Under the agreement, India has pledged to extend financial assistance of Rs 2.33 crores. The project is to be implemented by Kathmandu Metropolitan city. India is to assist in constructing sanitation facility at the temple complex.

India’s assistance comes amidst a raging border row between the two countries.

Pashupatinath Temple

The Pashupatinath temple is the largest temple complex in Nepal. It is located on the Bagmati river of Nepal. The temple is one of the UNESCO World Heritage site.

Bagmati river

The river is considered holy by both Hindus and Buddhists. The river flows in India and Nepal. It is a tributary of Kosi river.

India-Nepal Issue

The Nepal Parliament recently passed an amendment bill to redraw its political map. The new map is to include Kalapani, Lipulekh and Limpiyadhura. These regions are disputed and are claimed by both India and Nepal.

Nepal approves new Map: Includes Kalapani

On May 19, 2020, Nepap approved a new map that included the territories of Kalapani, Lipuleh and Limpiyadhura. However, the territories have been claimed by India as well. In October 2019, India issued a new political map that included Lipulekh and Kalapani on its side of border.

What is the issue?

In 1816, the kingdom of Nepal and British India signed the Treaty of Sugauli under which Kali River was fixed as the Western Border of Nepal. The issue has arisen in locating the source of the river that led to boundary disputes between India and Nepal. Both the countries are supporting their own claims.

India’s Claims

India recently inaugurated a road section in Pithogarh district of Uttarakhand. According to India, under treaty of Sugauli, Limpiyadhura is the point of origin of Kali river. It is the point where Nepal border begins.

Kali River

Kali river originates in Sivaliks ranges. The Himalayas are divided into three ranges namely Himadri, Himachal and Sivalik. The river is under India’s clean up target of National Ganga River Basin Authority.

National Ganga River Basin Authority

The National Ganga River Basin Authority was established under Environment Protection Act, 1986. The act also declared Ganges as the National River. The authority though has role in safeguarding the river basin, it is not involved in National Mission for Clean Ganga.