Indian Council of Medical Research Current Affairs - 2019

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ICMR calls for ban on Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems

The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) recommended ‘complete’ ban on Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS), including e-cigarettes. The recommendation is based on currently available scientific evidence.

On occasion of World Tobacco Day which was observed on 31 May, ICMR released a white paper (an authoritative report or guide that informs readers about an issue) about harmful effects of ENDS and e-cigarettes.

Key Findings of ICMR’s White Paper

  • Background: In 2018 Centre government issued an advisory recommending a ban on sale of e-cigarettes in India. Later a committee headed by K Srinath Reddy of Public Health Foundation of India (PHAI) was constituted which included experts from ICMR, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, AII India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) and Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER) in Chandigarh. The committee was tasked to analyse more than 300 research articles from all over the world and prepared the white paper.
  • Addictive: It noted that e-cigarettes and other such devices contained not only nicotine solution, that was highly addictive, but also harmful ingredients like flavoring agents and vaporisers.
  • Marketing: It found that availability of flavour variants and attractive designs are adding to allure of devices, and globally there was an increasing trend of e-cigarettes consumption among youth and adolescents. There are more than 460 different e-cigarette brands with varied configuration of nicotine delivery that come in over 7,700 flavours.
  • Worry: Use of ENDS or e-cigarettes can open a gateway for new tobacco addiction among the masses as on the balance, these have a negative impact on public health.
  • Effect on Health:  Prolonged use of ENDS or e-cigarettes has documented adverse impact on humans which includes DNA damage, respiratory/cardiovascular/ neurological Disorders, carcinogenic/cellular/molecular/immunological Toxicity and even have adverse effects on fetal development and pregnancy.
  • It rejected argument that e-cigarettes could help smokers quit tobacco consumption. Although such benefits of e-cigarettes consumption have not been firmly established but these devices could encourage non-smokers to get addicted to tobacco.
  • Youth: With large number of e-cigarette brands promoting thousands of flavors, the e-cigarette are fast becoming a trend among youngsters. Research has found that youths using e-cigarettes (or other such devices) are more likely to use regular cigarettes in later period. The exposure to ENDS increases the likelihood to experiment with regular products and increase intention to indulge in cigarette smoking.

Way Forward

These scientific and research data given in the white paper could help the government to formulate necessary policies on ENDS or e-cigarettes and other such devices.

Month: Categories: Reports & IndicesUPSC


Rapid and Cheap Diagnostic test for Haemophilia A developed

Indian Council of Medical Research’s (ICMR) National Institute of Immunohaematology (in Mumbai) has developed a cost-effective Point-of-Care (POC) rapid diagnostic test for severe genetic disorders Haemophilia A (also called factor VIII (FVIII)) and Von Willebrand Disease (VWD).

Key Features of POC Diagnostic Test

  • Earlier Concern: Lack of diagnostic facilities and awareness as well as high costs of tests is leading to under diagnosis of bleeding disorders.
  • Diagnosis of: The newly developed POC test kit can be used for diagnosis of undiagnosed patients, post-partum haemorrhage (PPH), menorrhagia cases, recovery of factors in the transfused Haemophilia A patients, gynaecological complications with bleeding history, and also for differential diagnosis of both diseases.
  • Cost Effective: As per ICMR working cost of these kits is less than ₹50 which is too much less in comparison to existing conventional tests available for the diseases that costs around ₹4,000 to ₹10,000.
  • Rapid: With help of POC test, diagnosis can be done within half an hour (30 minutes) of blood sample collection.
  • Importance: This is World’s first Point-of-Care (POC) test for specific diagnosis of any common bleeding disorder.
  • Fatal Disease: Patients with severe Haemophilia A or Von Willebrand Disease (VWD) can have severe life threatening spontaneous or post-traumatic bleeding such as gastrointestinal bleed and brain haemorrhage or they may also have bleeding into joints or superficial bleeding from gums or nose.

About Von Willebrand Disease (VWD)

  • It is a genetic disorder caused by missing or defective Von Willebrand factor (VWF). VWF is a clotting protein.
  • In normal case when a blood vessel is injured and bleeding occurs, VWF helps platelets to mesh together and form a clot to stop bleeding. But in case of people with VWD, they do not have enough VWF, or it does not work effectively (the way it would in normal case), thus it takes longer time for blood clotting and to stop bleeding.
  • As per estimations up to 1% of world’s population suffers from VWD.

Month: Categories: Science & Technology