IRNSS Current Affairs
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has successfully launched IRNSS-1I navigation satellite from Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh. The satellite was launched on board of PSLV-C41 (height of 44.4 meters and weight of 321 tonnes) after the normal lift-off and was successfully placed in the designated orbit. It was overall 20th flight of PSLV-XL version and 41st successful mission of total 43 of PSLV.
The IRNSS-1I is overall eighth satellite to join ISRO’s NavIC navigation satellite constellation. It replaced IRNSS-1A, the first of seven navigation satellites of IRNSS series that was rendered ineffective after its three rubidium atomic clocks failed. IRNSS-1I was made by Bengaluru-based Alpha Design Technologies in collaboration with ISRO.
Note: It was ISRO’s second attempt to send replacement satellite. The previous mission of a PSLV carrying IRNSS-1H in August 2017 failed after the heat shield covering satellite failed to separate in space after the launch.
The IRNSS-1I was having lift-off weight of 1,425 kg and has life span of 10 years. It carried two types of payloads: Navigation and Ranging. They are L5 and S-band navigation payloads and C-band ranging payloads. It also has corner cube retroreflectors for LASER ranging. It will be stationed in Geosynchronous Orbit at 36,000 km height.
The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) is an independent satellite based regional system developed indigenously by India on par with US-based GPS, Russia’s Glonass and Galileo developed by Europe. It was renamed “Navic” (Navigation with Indian Constellation).
The NAVIC system is constellation of seven satellites, (namely IRNSS-1I, 1B, 1C, 1D, 1E, 1F and 1G) of which three are geostationary and four are non-geostationary. It provides location tracking within 20 meters of actual positions, especially in 1,500 km area around the country’s borders. The indigenous satellite-based navigation system under one’s control and command is considered a deep strategic asset.
The NAVIC navigation system has both civilian and military uses. Moreover, it helps not just in land navigation but also in marine and aerial navigation. It offers wide services like terrestrial and marine navigation, disaster management, vehicle tracking and fleet management visual and voice navigation for drivers.
The need for indigenous navigation system on par with GPS was felt soon after Kargil conflict (1999), when India desperately needed services osatellite-based navigation system, but did not have one of its own. The US system was not available at the time. Only US (named GPS) and Russia (Glosnass) currently have fully operational GPS systems at present. China (Beidou) and Europe (Galileo) are still in process of deploying their full systems.
The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has successfully launched India’s 7th navigation satellite IRNSS 1G of the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS).
The satellite was launched into a Sub-Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (Sub-GTO) on-board of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) C-33 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh.
IRNSS 1G satellite is last space segment satellites of the IRNSS system. With this India joins elite group of selected nations that have their own GPS (Global Positioning System) or navigation system.
Note: IRNSS system is similar to other satellite navigation systems like US’s GPS , Russia’s Glonass, Japan’s Quasi Zenith, Europe’s Galileo and China’s Beidou.
About IRNSS 1G
- IRNSS 1G satellite has a lift-off mass of 1425 kg.
- Its configuration is the same as IRNSS-1A, 1B, 1C, 1D, 1E and 1F.
- Payloads: It equipped with two types of payloads viz. navigation payload and ranging devices.
- The navigation payload will be mainly used to transmit navigation service signals to the users.
- The ranging payload consists of a C-band transponder that will facilitate accurate determination of the range of the satellite.
About IRNSS System
- IRNSS System consists of constellation of seven satellites of which three are geostationary and four are non-geostationary.
- Four Geosynchronous satellites: They will be orbiting in pairs in two inclined geosynchronous orbits.
- When observed from the ground, these 2 pairs of satellites will appear to travel in figures of ‘8’.
- Three Geostationary satellites: They will be placed in the geostationary orbit over the equator.
- They match the Earth’s rotation and shall remain at a fixed position in the sky.
- Services: This satellite system aims to provide real-time accurate position information of objects to users across the country and the region, extending up to an area of 1,500 km.
- It would provide two types of 24/7 standard services (i) Restricted Service (RS): an encrypted service provided to authorised users. It will be used for military and missile-related applications. (ii) Standard Positioning Service (SPS): to all users.
- Applications: (i) Terrestrial, Aerial and Marine Navigation (ii) Disaster Management (iii) Vehicle tracking and fleet management (iv) Integration with mobile phones (v) Precise Timing (vi) Mapping and Geodetic data capture (vii) Terrestrial navigation aid for hikers and travellers (viii) Visual and voice navigation for drivers.
Earlier the six satellites of the series namely IRNSS-1A, 1B, 1C, 1D, 1E and 1F were launched in July 2013, April 2014, October 2014, March 2015, January 2016 and March 2016 respectively. It will become operational after checking the systems-space (satellites), ground (ground stations) and the user end signal receivers.