James Allison Current Affairs - 2019
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The 2018 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was jointly awarded to two immunologists James P. Allison (US) and Tasuku Honjo (Japan) for their discovery of Immune checkpoint therapy i.e. cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation. It was announced by Nobel Assembly at Sweden’s Karolinska Institute.
Significance of their discovery
Both immunologists had figured out entirely new principle for cancer therapy by stimulating the ability of immune system to attack tumour or cance cells more quickly, unlike traditional forms of cancer treatment that directly target cancer cells. Their discovery has led to treatments targeting proteins made by some immune system cells that act as brake on body’s natural defences killing cancer cells. This therapy is landmark in fight against cancer and has revolutionised cancer treatment. It also has fundamentally changed way to manage cancer.
About Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
The Nobel award for physiology or medicine is given to persons whose discoveries have significantly enhanced understanding of life or practice of medicine. The winners are chosen by Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institute. The prestigious award carries prize money of 8 million Swedish kroner (US $1.1 million). Medicine is first of the Nobel Prizes awarded each year. It is one of five Nobel Prizes established by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite in 1895 in his will. German physiologist Emil von Behring was first recipient of this award in 1901 for his work on serum therapy and development of vaccine against diphtheria. Gerty Cori was first woman to receive Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1947 for her role in elucidating metabolism of glucose.
Three US scientists James Allison, Carl June and Steven Rosenberg were declared winners 2018 Albany Medical Center Prize in Medicine and Biomedical Research. They were awarded in recognition of their research in immunology and translation of their ideas into effective therapies that have led to innovative treatments for cancer, HIV and other diseases. They will share this $500,000 medical prize. They will receive the award at ceremony to be held in September 2018 in Albany, New York.
Albany Medical Center Prize in Medicine and Biomedical Research
It is United States’ second highest value prize in medicine and biomedical research, awarded by the Albany Medical Center. It was established in 2000 by late Morris “Marty” Silverman to honor to any physician or scientists or group whose work have led to significant advances in fields of health care and scientific research with demonstrated translational benefits applied to improved patient care. It is awarded annually and carries monetary award of $500,000.