Joint comprehensive plan of action Current Affairs - 2019

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Bavar-373: Iran’s new home-grown air defence system unveiled

Iran unveiled its new home-grown air defence system called Bavar-373 during a ceremony held on Iran’s ‘National Defence Industry Day’. Iran’s President Hassan Rouhani has ordered to add Bavar-373 to country’s missile defence network.

The unveiling takes place against a backdrop of rising tensions between and Iran and United States (US) since US President Donald Trump’s 2018 decision to unilaterally withdrew US from Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action also known Iran nuclear deal (2015) and reimposing sanctions on Iran.

About Bavar-373 Missile System

The word Bavar means ‘believe’ in Farsi. It is being touted as Islamic republic’s 1st domestically produced long-range missile defence system.

Features

It is a long-range mobile surface-to-air missile system.

Range: more than 200 kilometres (124 miles)

This long-range missile system is suited to Iran’s geography.

It competes with Russia’s S-300 and USA’s Patriot systems. It is being touted as a system better than Russia’s S-300 and close to S-400.

Background

Iran began making Bavar after the purchase of Russia’s S-300 system was suspended in 2010 due to international sanctions imposed on it. However, in March 2016, Iran installed S-300 system following several years of delays, after the JCPOA nuclear agreement was reached between Iran and the P5+1 (China France, Germany, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) on 14 July 2015, which allowed lifting of international sanctions on Iran.

IAEA confirms Iran breached enriched Uranium Stockpile limit

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations’ atomic watchdog has confirmed that Iran has exceeded limit on amount of enriched uranium in its stockpile set out in 2015 nuclear deal with world powers.

This marks the 1st major departure by Iran from unraveling agreement a year after U.S. unilaterally withdrew from Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) accord.

Key Highlights

The initial announcement about Iran had broken limit set on its stockpile of low-enriched uranium by 2015 nuclear deal were made by Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif.

Limit Breached: Later IAEA inspectors verified and confirmed that the country has exceeded 300-kilogramme limit on its enriched uranium reserves.

Threat: Iran has threatened that country is planning to increase its enrichment of uranium closer to weapons-grade levels by July 7 and to suspend its other commitments under JCPOA deal in 10 days unless European powers took steps to implement their new mechanism called INSTEX for facilitating trade.

Iran also announced that it is planning to suspend other commitments also.

What is INSTEX?

INSTEX stands for Instrument in Support of Trade Exchanges.

It is a special-purpose vehicle established in January 2019 by E3 i.e. France, Germany and United Kingdom to facilitate non-dollar trade with Iran amid US unilateral withdrawal from JCPOA.

This new trading system is designed to circumvent sanctions on Iran. As of May 2019 use of SPV is limited to humanitarian purposes such as purchase of otherwise embargoed foods or medicines.

Issue: On 28 June 2019, EU stated that INSTEX has been made operational and that 1st transactions are being processed, but according to Iran, it did not meet countries needs.

About Iran Nuclear Deal

Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) also known Iran nuclear deal or Iran deal was an agreement on Iranian nuclear program reached.

Participants: It was signed between Iran, P5+1 (refers to UN Security Council’s 5 permanent members (P5); namely France, United Kingdom, China, Russia, and US; plus Germany.), and European Union in Vienna on July 14, 2015.

Under the 2015 Nuclear Deal, Iran had agreed to limit its sensitive nuclear activities and allow in IAEA inspectors in return for lifting of sanctions.

Limit: As per the deal Iran can stockpile no more than 300kg of low-enriched uranium. Iran is permitted to produce low-enriched uranium, which has a 3.67% concentration of U-235, and can fuel a power plant only until 2031.

Uses: Enriched uranium used for peaceful purposes, including medical research and producing electricity but, if it is highly purified it can also be used to make a nuclear bomb.