Laser Technology Current Affairs - 2020

GoI: Technology developed to improve Fuel Efficiency of Internal Combustion Engines

The International Advanced Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI) operating under Department of Science and Technology, Government of India has developed a technology to improve fuel efficiency of internal combustion engines.

Highlights

The technology improves the fuel efficiency by reducing friction in the engines. This has been achieved through Laser surface micro-texturing. In this technology, the friction is controlled by controlling the size, density and shape of the micro-surface texture features. Such a texture is created by using a pulsating laser beam. The beam creates micro-dimples, grooves on the surface of the materials. These Grooves trap debris that usually increase friction and thereby wear and tear.

About the model

The texture has been created on internal combustion engine components such as cylinder liners and piston rings. The model was tested at the ARCI lab under difference speeds and also at different temperatures of lubrication oil and coolant.

Get these updates on Current Affairs Today Android App

What is Thermal Screening used at airports for COVID-19?

Thermal Screening are being used at airports to check COVID-19 virus. The numbers infected in India has reached 500 and India has entered into complete lock down for 21 days to contain the disease.

What is Thermal Screening?

Thermal screening is a process that detects radiation emitted by an object with increased temperature. When a person has fever, his temperature levels shoot up and thermal screening helps to detect them. When the temperature of an object increases, the radiations emitted by them also increases.

Current Issues

The Thermal scanners that are used at airports and sea ports to screen passengers entering India should be held at 1 to 3 cm distance. If not positioned accurately, the air temperature would have impacts on the recorded temperature. The devices are currently being operated by security personnel at many places and not a trained professional. This creates possibilities of errors.

A person is declared to have fever if his body temperature is above 100.4 degree Fahrenheit according to COVID-19 infection knowledge. The normal body temperature is 98.4 degree Fahrenheit. However, the person at the early stages of COVID-19 infections show body temperature hikes less than 100.4 degree Fahrenheit. Hence, there are possibilities for persons with the infection to enter the country rather being quarantined.

Usage of Infrared Thermometers

The usage of Infrared thermometers for humans is banned in India. They are however used in coal mines. As these thermometers use Laser technology, they are harmful and hence are banned in the country. Today, such thermometers have entered for human usages as the demand for thermal screening has increased. The thermal screening medical devices that are usually imported by India are stuck at ports due to lock down.

Get these updates on Current Affairs Today Android App