Livestock Sector Current Affairs - 2019
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The Union Ministry of Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare has launched Livestock Disease Forewarning –Mobile Application (LDF-Mobile App).
It was launched by Union Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare Minister Radha Mohan Singh in New Delhi. During the launch, the Minister also informed that dreaded Rinderpest disease has been eradicated from India
LDF-Mobile App was developed by ICAR-National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics (ICAR-NIVEDI), Bengaluru. This app will be beneficial for consumers and stakeholders engaged in disease control programmes.
The app will provide early diseases warning and also information about clinical samples for diagnosis in case of epidemic so that immediate action in case of epidemic. This app works on all kind of android smartphones and takes up 2.5 MB space.
ICAR-NIVEDI had identified 13 priority diseases based on their past incidence patterns and built strong database of these diseases on app. The app considers both climatic and non-climatic factors and categorizes districts for a particular disease into Very High Risk, High Risk, Moderate Risk, Low Risk, Very Low Risk and No Risk so that stakeholders can effectively plan and utilize the available resources.
Chinese scientists from Northwest A&F University have produced world’s first live cows with increased resistance to bovine tuberculosis (TB).
This development shows that genetic modification technology can be better suited to producing transgenic livestock with purposefully manipulated genetic.
- Researchers had used a modified version of the CRISPR gene-editing technology called CRISPR/Cas9n to insert a new TB resistance gene NRAMP1 into the genome of bovine foetal fibroblasts, cell derived from female dairy cows.
- These cells were then used as donor cells in a process called somatic cell nuclear transfer. In it, nucleus of a donor cell carrying the new gene was inserted into an egg cell, known as an ovum, from a female cow.
- These ovum were then nurtured in the lab into embryos and transferred into mother cows for a normal pregnancy cycle.
- During this cycle, cows were produced with no off target effects on the animals’ genetics — a common problem when creating transgenic animals using CRISPR.
- This scientific process revealed that NRAMP1 had successfully integrated into the genetic code at the targeted region in all of the calves.
- When it was exposed to Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), bacterium that causes bovine TB, transgenic animals showed increased resistance to M. bovis.
- Further in laboratory tests, the white blood cells taken from the calves also showed much resistance to M. bovis exposure.
What is CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing technique?
- CRISPR short form of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats. It allows scientists to selectively edit genome parts and replace them with new DNA stretches.
- Cas9 is an enzyme that can edit DNA, allowing the alteration of genetic patterns by genome modification. CRISPR is a collection of DNA sequences that direct Cas9 where to cut and paste.
- CRISPR-Cas9 technology has the potential to revolutionise the treatment of blood diseases, tumours and other genetic diseases.