Malaria Current Affairs - 2019
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The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared Algeria and Argentina as ‘Malaria-Free’ countries after no cases of indigenous transmission of disease were recorded.
- Background: The Malaria parasite was first discovered in humans in Algeria by a French physician named Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran in 1880. By 1960s, Malaria became Nigeria’s primary health challenge, with reporting almost 80,000 cases each year. The country then started it steps towards responding to disease. On the other hand, Argentina began is elimination efforts in 1970s.
- About: The indigenous transmission of disease was last reported from Algeria in 2013, while last case of Argentina was recorded in 2010.
- Algeria became second country in Africa to be declared malaria-free, after Mauritius, which was certified in 1973.
- Argentina became second country in South America to be certified malaria free after Paraguay, which was certified in June 2018.
- The certificates will be presented to both countries on sidelines of the 72nd session of the World Health Assembly (WHA) which is being held in Geneva, Switzerland.
- Steps Taken: by both nations include-
- Improved surveillance which helped every last case of malaria to be rapidly identified and treated.
- Free diagnosis and treatment of patients ensured that no one was left behind. This helped to prevent, detect and cure the disease.
- The trained health workers were deployed to spray homes with insecticides and to also diagnose disease through microscopy.
WHO and Malaria
As per the WHO’s World malaria report 2018:
- Malaria remains one of world’s leading killers of decade. In 2017, Malaria accounted for about 219 million cases from 87 countries and more than 400,000 deaths. Of total count over 60% of fatalities was among children under 5 years of age and had caused 266,000 deaths worldwide.
- In 2017, the African region recorded 92% of malaria cases and 93% of malaria deaths thus had highest share of global malaria burden.
- Four countries in African continent accounted for nearly 50% of all malaria cases worldwide, namely Nigeria (25%), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC 11%), Mozambique (5%), and Uganda (4%)
WHO Malaria-Free Certification Criteria: The Country under consideration has to prove that it has interrupted indigenous transmission of malaria for at least 3 consecutive years. Till date a total of 36 countries have received WHO’s malaria free certification.
- It is mosquito-borne infectious disease.
- Cause: by infectious Plasmodium type parasitic protozoans (group of single-celled microorganisms).
- Transmission: on biting of infected female Anopheles mosquito.
- Mosquirix or (RTS,S) is World’s first vaccine against a parasitic disease.
Tags: 72nd session of the World Health Assembly (WHA) • Algeria • Argentina • female Anopheles • Geneva • Malaria • Malaria Free Countries • Mosquirix • Plasmodium • RTS S • Switzerland • WHO Malaria-Free Certification • World Health Organization (WHO) • World malaria report 2018
The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) launched ‘MERA (Malaria Elimination Research Alliance) India’, with aim of eliminating Malaria from India by 2030. It is a collective group of partners working on malaria control. It was launched on occasion of World Malaria Day 2019 (Observed on 25 April).
- It aims to prioritize, plan and scale up a coordinated research to have impact on population facing malaria risk and to eliminate malaria from India by 2030.
- It complements and not duplicates international efforts to eliminate Malaria on a national scale, and simultaneously contributing to broader global agenda.
- It seeks to facilitate trans-institutional coordination and collaboration around shared research agenda, which responds to programmatic challenges, addresses gaps in available tools, and proactively contributes to targeted research.
- It holds importance for Ministry of Health and Family Welfare because of operational research.
India and Malaria
Declining Trend: Malaria burden has declined in India by over 80% from 2.03 million cases in 2000 to 0.39 million in 2018, and Deaths caused by malaria also declined by over 90% from 932 deaths in 2000 to 85 in 2018. This success of India in malaria control cases, provided foundation for leadership commitment towards eliminating malaria from India by 2030. The WHO report also appreciated India’s research for decline in malaria.
India’s ‘The National Vector Borne Diseases Control Program (NVBDCP)’, developed a comprehensive framework to achieve overarching vision of “Malaria free India by 2030”. NVBDCP’s National Strategic Plan recognises critical role of research to support and guide malaria elimination efforts.
To achieve the stated objective, we need to have a coordinated approach, cutting edge research, research inputs, stick to timeline and tools which can guide national programme to develop strategies for regular changes endemicity in near malaria elimination era.