Maternal mortality ratio Current Affairs
The World Health Organisation (WHO) has commended India’s progress in reducing maternal mortality ratio (MMR) by 77%, from 556 per 10000 live births in 1990 to 130 per 10000 live births in 2016. This progress puts India on track towards achieving Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target of MMR below 70 by 2030. India’s present MMR is below Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target.
India has made concerted push to increase access to quality maternal health services with coverage of essential maternal health services which has doubled since 2005. Proportion of institutional deliveries in public facilities has almost tripled, from 18% in 2005 to 52% in 2016 (including private facilities, institutional deliveries).
State-subsidised demand-side financing like Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram (JSSK) has largely closed urban-rural divide traditionally seen in institutional births. JSSK also allows all pregnant women delivering in public health institutions free transport and no-expense delivery, including caesarian section.
Government has put significant emphasis on mitigating social determinants of maternal health. Women in India are now more literate than ever, with 68% are now able to read and write. They are also entering marriage at older age, with just 27% now wedded before age of 18. These factors have enabled Indian women to better control their reproductive lives and make decisions that reflect their own interests and wants.
Moreover, Government also has put in substantive efforts to facilitate positive engagement between public and private health care providers. Public campaigns such as Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan have been introduced with great impact, allowing women access to antenatal check-ups, obstetric gynecologists and to track high-risk pregnancies.
According to World Health Statistics 2018 released by World Health Organisation (WHO), India saw estimated 211 cases of tuberculosis (TB) per 1,00,000 people in 2016. India has pledged to eradicate tuberculosis by 2025, five years ahead of global target set by WHO. WHO’s annual World Health Statistics reports present most recent health statistics for WHO Member States.
Key highlights of World Health Statistics 2018
Tuberculosis (TB): Globally, incidence of TB registered 19% decline over 16-year period from 173 new and relapse cases per 1,00, 000 population in year 2000 to 140 per 1,00,000 population in 2016. It remains high-burden disease and progress in fighting it, although impressive, is still not fast enough to close persistent gaps.
Cases reported in India were lower than neighbouring Bangladesh and Myanmar which recorded 221 and 361 cases respectively in this category. However, Nepal and Bhutan recorded fewer number of TB cases per 1,00,000 population than India
Maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in India: It was 174 per 1,00,000 births in 2015. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for 2030 is to lower MMR for all countries to less than 70 per 1,00,000 births.
Air pollution: Deaths due to air pollution was concerned, age-standardised mortality rate attributed to household and ambient air pollution (per 1,00,000 population) in 2016 was 184.3% in India.
Per capita health expenditure in India: It was around US $63 in 2015, way lower than China (US $426), while in Pakistan it was $38.