Montreal Protocol Current Affairs - 2020

UNEP and IEA Report: World will need at least 14 billion cooling appliances by 2050

The United Nations Environment Programme and the International Energy Agency released a report on “Cooling Emissions and Policy Synthesis”. The report cited benefits of cooling efficiency and Kigali Amendment report.


The report says that by 2050, the world will need at least 14 billion cooling appliances. Currently, there are 3.6 billion appliances in use globally. This will significantly contribute to increase in temperature.

Why the increase?

The increase in cooling appliance will come due to the demand from the following sectors

  • Temperature controlled supply chain
  • Food Safety
  • Comfort and Luxury in domestic
  • Vaccines and medicines supply chain
  • Productivity


The report says that the Air Conditioners use Hydrofluorocarbons that emit green house gases. Without correct policy interventions, the emissions from the air conditioning and refrigeration is to increase by 90% as compared to 2017 levels in 2050.


Energy Efficient Air Conditioners can help reduce energy requirement by 1,300 GW. This is equivalent to entire coal fired power generated in India and China in the year 2018.

Kigali Agreement

It is the amendment to the Montreal Protocol. It was signed in 2016 in Kigali. The Montreal Protocol was signed in 1985 to phase out hydrofluorocarbons. As of July 2020, 99 members and the European Union have ratified the agreement.


The recommendations made in the report resonate with Delhi based think tank Centre for Science and Environment (CSE).

According to Ministry of power,

  • The production of Air conditioners in India grew by 13% since 2010
  • The demand for Air Conditioners are expected to grow by 15% per year between 2017 and 2027.

The Government of India has mandated 24°C as default temperature for ACs

India and Norway to work towards mitigating marine plastic littering

On February 16, 2020, at the CMS COP-13, the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species Conference of Parties-13, was marked by India. The Convention is to be held in Gandhinagar, Gujarat between February 17, 2020 and February 22, 2020.


On the sidelines of CMS COP-13, India and Norway declared the 2020-30 decade as the “Decade of rapid action on Climate Change and Environment”.  The countries will work together towards strengthening mutual cooperation on climate and environment including ocean affairs.

The countries decided to work towards mitigating marine plastic pollution. This is to be done on the lines of Kigali Amendment of Montreal Protocol and MoU signed between India and Norway under India-Norway Ocean Dialogue (INOD). Under the MoU India-Norway Marine Pollution Initiative was adopted.

Kigali Amendment

In October 2016, the Montreal Protocol was signed by more than 170 countries in order to protect ozone layer and climate. The Kigali Amendment to the protocol aims to phase down the Hydrofluorocarbons.