Mycobacterium tuberculosis Current Affairs - 2019

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IMMUVAC , VPM1002: India’s 1st large-scale trial of two new TB vaccines launched

Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) launched India’s first large-scale trial for two new tuberculosis (TB) vaccines named IMMUVAC and VPM1002. These vaccines aim to prevent infection (pre-exposure) or prevent primary progression or reactivation of latent TB infection (post-exposure), all of which have critical role to play in India’s big fight against TB. Both vaccines have been manufactured by Indian pharmaceutical companies.

About Vaccines

  • Immuvac: It is also known as mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP). It has been manufactured by Ahmedabad based Cadila Pharmaceuticals,
  • VPM1002: It is manufactured by Pune based Serum Institute of India.

Need for new vaccines

At present Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is widely used in routine Expanded Programme of Immunisation (EPI) across the world. However , this vaccine is over century  old and provides poor protection against pulmonary disease in adolescents and adults.

About Trial

This will be first large preventive TB vaccine trial in the country involving more than 12,000 healthy household contacts of newly diagnosed TB patients from across six states of India. These six states including Delhi, Maharashtra, Odisha, Telangana and Karnataka with two thousand participants have enrolled for these trials. Depending on the results, ICMR will give recommendations to Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.

Tuberculosis (TB)

It is infectious disease which is caused by bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).

Symptom: Early symptoms of TB include bad cough which may lasts for 3 weeks or even longer. It causes pain in chest and one might also end up coughing blood. It mainly affects lungs and can also infect other parts of body.

TB in India: As per Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare’s 2018 annual report of Central TB division, the incidence of TB in India was nearly 2.8 million annually and incidence of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) was 1,47,000 per year. India has highest share of global TB burden, contributing to 27% of total global burden. The total number of deaths because of TB in India was 4,23,000 and with incidence of HIV-TB was 87,000 per year. In this background, in 2017, Central government had committed to eliminate TB from the country by 2025.

World Tuberculosis Day 2019

World Tuberculosis Day 2019 was observed on March 24th with the theme “It’s time”.  World Tuberculosis Day is celebrated to raise awareness about the devastating consequences of TB and how to end the global epidemic of this lung disease.

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Tuberculosis affects the lungs and can also infect other parts of the body. Early symptoms of TB include bad cough which lasts for 3 weeks or longer. It causes pain in the chest and one might also end up coughing blood in case of tuberculosis.

The theme of World Tuberculosis Day 2019 “It’s time” draws attention towards the urgency to act on the commitments made by global leaders to build accountability regarding TB and increase access of prevention and treatment of TB.

As part of World World Tuberculosis Day, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has initiated “Find. Treat. All. #EndTB”, a joint initiative with Global Fund and Stop TB Partnership under which communities, civil society organisations, governments and health-care providers come together to ensure that no one is left behind and everyone gets equal and fair information about tuberculosis, its causes, symptoms and risk factors.

Why March 24th was chosen as World Tuberculosis Day?

March 24th is observed as World Tuberculosis Day because it was on March 24th 1882, TB bacterium was discovered by Dr Robert Koch. The discovery of TB bacterium marked the first step towards diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis.