NASA Current Affairs - 2020

Fifth State of Matter observed by NASA scientists

The NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) scientists in the International Space Station unveiled the first results of Bose-Einstein condensate experiments under which the particles can be manipulated free from Earthly constraints.

Bose-Einstein Condensates

Bose-Einstein Condensates were predicted by Indian Mathematician Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein almost a century ago. The BEC is a state of matter that is typically formed when a gas of bosons is cooled to temperatures close to absolute zero.

Absolute Zero is the temperature at which the entropy and enthalpy of cooled gas reach their minimum value.

Four States of Matter

There are four state of matter namely solid, liquid, gas and plasma. The fourth state of matter called the plasma was described by the chemist Irving Langmuir. It consists of gas of ions in which orbital electrons are removed and positively charged nuclei roam freely.

Fifth State of Matter

The BEC is the fifth state of matter and was created by the scientists 25 years ago. When a group of atoms are cooled to absolute zero, the atoms clump together behaving as a one big super atom. This state is called the fifth state of matter and is referred to BEC.

Saturn Moon Titan: Drifting faster than before

The moon of Saturn, Titan is drifting away faster than before. This has been identified by the researchers in NASA and also scientists in Italian Space Agency.


According to the data received from the Cassini Spacecraft of NASA, scientists believed that the Titan has been moving away from its host planet Saturn. However, the recent studies say that the moon is drifting 100 times faster. This is about 4 inches every year.

Science of drifting moons

The moons begin drifting away from their host planets because as the moons orbit, their gravitational pull on the planet creates temporary bulge in the planet. This bulge in turn increases the energy exerted by the planet on its moon. It also transfers the subsiding and bulging energy to its moon.

The earth’s own moon drifts 1.5 inches from the Earth every year.

There are around 82 moons that are orbiting Saturn.


The Cassini Space Craft Mission, or the Cassini-Huygens Mission is a joint space mission of NASA. Italian Space Agency and the European Space Agency. The mission was launched to study saturn, its moons, and rings.