Nationally Determined Contributions Current Affairs - 2020

73 Countries join Climate Ambition Alliance at COP25

Around 73 countries have joined the Climate Ambition Alliance (CAA) at the COP25. The alliance is led by Chile and was launched at the Climate Action Summit, New York in 2019.

Both Chile and UK will work together to mobilize additional actors to join the alliance. They will also work towards COP26 that is to be held in November 2020 at Glasgow, UK.

Climate Ambition Alliance

The CAA will focus on Nationally Determined Contributions in order to achieve Net Zero by 2050. It will focus in resilience in infrastructure, management of water and sustainability of cities. The main purpose of the alliance is to upscale 2020 targets of members of UN and to achieve Net Zero Carbon Emissions by 2050.

Significance of the alliance

The alliance is important to enhance the Nationally Determined Contributions of countries all over the world. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in its Emissions Gap Report, 2019 warned that in order to achieve the goal of 1.5°C increase in temperatures over pre-industrial levels, it is essential to reduce the emissions by 7.6% between 2020 and 2030.

Emissions Gap Report, 2019

The Emissions Gap Report that was released by the UNEP in December 2019, measures the gap between measures being done and measures to be done to tackle climate change.

Key Findings of the report

The report says that the global temperature will increase by 3.2 degrees by 2100 as compared to pre-industrial levels. The top four emitters of the world namely China, USA, European Union and India contributed to 55% of total emissions in the last decade.

Suggestions of the report

The report suggests that a minimum of 1.58 billion USD of annual investment in renewable sector is required for efficient energy use. It also says that solutions like coal phaseout, decarbonization of transport and industries and increased access to electricity will help tackle climate change.

India attended the Madrid Climate Conference

The Minister of Environment Shri Prakash Javadekar represented India at the Madrid Climate Conference. The United Nations Climate Change Conference is being held in Madrid between 2nd December, 2019 and 13th December 2019.

The COP25 (25th Conference of Parties) was to be held in Chile. However, Chile government cancelled COP25 due to the protests that are plaguing the country. Following its cancellation, Spain offered to organize the event.

Highlights

The Conference insisted the member countries to enhance their NDCs (Nationally Determined Contributions) in the coming 12 months till COP26. A yearbook was launched that called on the governments to strengthen the UNFCCC agenda post 2020. It also insisted to create actions for a climate resilient world between 2020 and 2050.

Report on Oceans

The conference also released report on oceans titled “Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate” (SPROCC). According to the report, global mean sea level increased from 1.4 mm (1901-1990) to 3.6 mm (2006-2015). Also, the report says that the ocean warming has increased since 1993. Between 1993 and 2017, 700 to 2000 metres of ocean layers have warmed up.

Nairobi Work Programme

The Nairobi Work Programme was reviewed and its progress were discussed at the conference. The Programme was established in 2005 at COP11. It aims at impacts, adaptation and vulnerability to climate change.

The objective of the programme is to assist least developed countries to understand and assess impacts of climate change.

The Global Climate Risk Index 2020 was published at the conference