Nobel Prize Current Affairs - 2019
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The 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Jeffrey C. Hall (72), Michael Rosbash (73) and Michael W. Young (68). It was announced by Nobel Assembly at Sweden’s Karolinska Institute.
They were awarded for discovering molecular mechanisms controlling circadian rhythm. Their discoveries explain how plants, animals and humans adapt their biological rhythm so that it is synchronized with Earth’s revolutions.
Circardian Rhythm is 24 hour cycle in physiological processes of living beings, including plants, animals, fungi and cyanobacteria. It influences such biological functions as hormone levels, sleep, body temperature and metabolism.
These three noble laureates dsing the fruit fly as a model organism, had isolated a gene that controls daily biological rhythm. They had showed that this gene encodes a protein that accumulates in cell during night and is then degraded during the day.
Subsequently they identified additional protein components of this machinery, exposing mechanism governing the self-sustaining clockwork inside the cell. They also had raised awareness of importance of proper sleep hygiene.
Nobel Medicine Prize
The Nobel award for medicine is given to persons whose discoveries have significantly enhanced understanding of life or practice of medicine. The winners are chosen by Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institute. The prestigious award carries prize money of 8 million Swedish kroner or 1.1 million dollars. Medicine is first of the Nobel Prizes awarded each year. It is one of five Nobel Prizes established by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite in 1895.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi inaugurated the Nobel Prize Series Exhibition in Gandhinagar, Gujarat. It is the first-of-its-kind conclave of Nobel laureates to be held in India.
It has been organised by Nobel Media and coordinated by the Department of Biotechnology. Nine Nobel laureates are attending it and interact with students of Indian Universities.
- The Nobel Prize Series 2017 will feature a five week long Science Exhibition. It is being set up by the Nobel Foundation with exhibits from Nobel Museum at Stockholm, Sweden.
- One of the 9 Nobel laureates include India-born scientist Dr Venkatraman Ramakrishnan. He won 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on ribosome structure along with Thomas A Steitz and Ada Yonath.
- The other eight Nobel laureates are H C Harmut Michel (1988, Chemistry) Harold Varmus (1989, Medicine), Richard J Roberts (1993, Medicine), David J Gross (2004, Physics), Serge Haroche (2012, Physics), Randy Schekman (2013, Medicine), W E Moerner (2014, Chemistry) and Ada Yonath (2009, Chemistry).
The Department of Biotechnology (DBT) under the Union Ministry of Science and Technology and Nobel Media had signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for hosting Nobel Prize Series in India for the next 5years in 2016. Later, a trilateral Memorandum of Understanding was signed between the DBT, Gujarat Government and the Nobel Media. It aims to bring together Nobel Laureates and other experts and learners with an aim to stimulate innovation and creative thinking. The conference will exhibit various conferences, lectures, exhibitions and roundtables.