Paris Agreement Current Affairs

COP22 adopts Marrakech Action Proclamation

The COP22 to the UNFCC, 12th session of COP of Parties to Kyoto Protocol (CMP 12), and first session of COP of Parties to the Paris Agreement (CMA 1) were held in Marrakech, Morocco.

Nearly 200 nations attending the COP22 to the UNFCC have adopted Marrakech Action Proclamation for Our Climate and Sustainable Development.

The 11-day meeting concluded with all participating member nations collectively reaffirming their commitment to climate action under Paris Agreement adopted in November 2015.

Key Features of Proclamation

  • It is urgent duty of countries to respond global warming which is warming the climate at an alarming and unprecedented rate.
  • It is necessary for rapid entry into force of the Paris Agreement with its ambitious goals, its inclusive nature and its reflection of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities.
  • Countries affirm their commitment to full implementation of the Paris Agreement which also reflects respective capabilities in light of different national circumstances of countries.
  • The nations demanded solidarity with those countries most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change.
  • It highlighted the need to support efforts aimed at enhancing their adaptive capacity, to strengthen resilience and to reduce vulnerability of most vulnerable countries.
  • The countries called for an increase in the volume, flow and access to finance for climate projects, alongside improved capacity and technology.
  • Developed Country Parties, reaffirm our $100 billion mobilisation goal.
  • The nations, who are parties to Kyoto Protocol (which does not include the US) should ratify of the Doha Amendment, with its focus on pre-2020 action.
  • Called for urgently raising ambition and strengthening cooperation among the countries to close the gap between current emissions trajectories.
  • Strengthen and support efforts to eradicate poverty, ensure food security and to take stringent action to deal with climate change challenges in agriculture.


The adaptation of Marrakech Action Proclamation sends out a strong signal to the world on climate action and shift towards a new era of implementation and action on climate and sustainable development.

India has welcomed Marrakesh Action Proclamation as most of its demands including the issue of providing finance to developing nations to tackle climate change has been incorporated.

Doha Amendments to the Kyoto Protocol

  • Doha Amendments to the Kyoto Protocol was made at Doha climate conference in 2012.
  • It was made for extending the obligation of the developed countries under Kyoto Protocol to make targeted cuts in their greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions by 2020.
  • The Kyoto Protocol adopted in 1997 had initially assigned GHGs emission cut targets to the developed countries only till 2012.

Why Doha Amendments are important?

  • Developing countries are putting pressure on developed countries not to ignore their commitments under Kyoto Protocol which ends in 2020 and after which Paris Agreement come into existence.
  • Unlike the Kyoto Protocol, Paris Agreement is not legally-binding and it does not assign any emission cut targets on any country.
  • Under Paris Agreement, every country decides for itself the actions that it wants to take to fight climate change.

Month: Categories: Environment Current Affairs 2018International Current Affairs 2018


Paris Agreement on Climate Change enters into force

The Paris Agreement to combat climate change officially entered into force after 55 parties to the convention accounting for at least 55% of total GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions ratified it.

The threshold for entry into force of the Paris Agreement was achieved on 5th October 2016. At present, 94 parties have ratified the convention. India was 62nd country to ratify it on 2 October 2016.

What is Paris Agreement on Climate Change?

  • It is an international climate deal to combat climate change. It facilitates enforcement of global GHGs reduction measures in the post-2020 i.e. in post Kyoto Protocol scenario.
  • Under it, all countries must pursue to keep global temperature rising below 2°C by 2100 above pre-industrial levels with an ideal target of keeping temperature rise below 1.5°C.
  • It forces developed countries to provide 100 billion dollars annually to the developing counterparts beginning in 2020 to deal with climate change.
  • It empowers countries to determine how to cut their emissions but mandates that they report transparently on those efforts.

Now what?

  • The first session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement (CMA1) will take place in Marrakech (Morocco).
  • It will be in conjunction with the COP 22 to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) meeting that is starting from 7 November 2016 .
  • The CMA1 meeting is expected to address matters relating to the implementation of the Paris Agreement like modalities, procedures and guidelines. It will also look at the status of ratification of the Paris Agreement.

Month: Categories: International Current Affairs 2018