Patents Current Affairs - 2019
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According to World Intellectual Property Indicators 2018 report released by United Nation’s World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO), number of patents granted by India shot up by 50% in 2017. The patents granted by India increased from 8,248 in 2016 to 12,387 in 2017, thus keeping up trend of steep increases.
Patents granted in 2017 in India were more than double 6,022 patents granted in 2015. Of the patents granted in 2017, 1,712 went to entities and individuals based in India, and 10,675 to foreigners. The steep increase in number was driven by patents granted to foreigners, which accounted for 85% of total increase. The number of patents given to domestic entities also has shown increasing trend.
In 2016, 1,115 went to domestic individuals or entities and 7,133 to foreigners and in 2015, 822 were granted to applicants in India and 5,200 to foreigners. Globally, 1.4 million patents were granted in 2017. China led world with 4,20,144 granted patents and was followed by US with 3,18,829.
World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO)
It is the global body for promotion and protection of intellectual property rights (IPR). It is one of the 15 specialized agencies of United Nations (UN). It was established in 1967 and is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. Its mandate is to encourage creative activity, to promote the protection of intellectual property throughout the world.
It encourages and provides assistance to all its 188 member countries in formulating national IPR policy however it does not dictate or prescribe any mandatory measures. India is a member of WIPO and party to several treaties administered by WIPO.
Indian pharmaceutical companies have ranked low at 19th position with an overall score of 59 out of 100 among in the Biopharmaceutical Competitiveness & Investment (BCI) Survey.
The survey of 28 countries was commissioned by the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America and executed by the Pugatch Consilium. It was third edition of survey.
How Survey was undertaken?
- Five metrics were used to determine rankings of countries. They are (i) scientific capabilities and infrastructure; (ii) clinical research conditions and framework; (iii) regulatory system; (iv) market access and financing; and (v) effective intellectual property protections.
- It had looked at biomedical innovation and its influencers, like intellectual property protection for investments in the pharmaceutical sector.
- It had categorized countries into two groups viz. mature markets like UK US, and Germany, and newcomers like China, India and Brazil.
Key Highlights of Survey
- Mature markets provide advanced intellectual property protection, highly streamlined regulatory framework and favourable tax conditions with some exceptions.
- India, along with China, Argentina, Colombia, Russia, Turkey and Brazil based on their overall score were labelled as trailing markets.
- Singapore which has placed in the newcomers category with a score of 85 is only a point behind the US, which is a mature market.
- India scores low on almost all metrics except in the clinical research conditions and framework and scientific capabilities and infrastructure.
- India’s IP regime, including Section 3(d) of IP Act requiring biopharmaceutical inventions to show ‘enhanced efficacy’, continues to affect its investment environment.