polio Current Affairs - 2019
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President Ram Nath Kovind has launched Pulse Polio Immunization (PPI) Programme for year 2018 by administering polio drops to children at the Rashtrapati Bhavan. The event was organised on the eve of the National Immunisation Day (NID), observed on 28 January. More than 17 crore children of less than 5 years across the country will be given polio drops as part of Government’s drive to eradicate polio from the country.
Pulse Polio Immunization (PPI)
PPI Programme is massive immunization programme of Government to sustain polio eradication from the country. It was launched by Central Government in co-operation with international agencies, state governments and non-government/voluntary organizations in 1995 as result of World Health Organization’s (WHO) Global Polio Eradication Initiative.
PPI Programme was initiated with objective of achieving 100% coverage under OPV. It aims to reach unreached children through improved social mobilization, plan mop-up operations in areas where poliovirus has almost disappeared and maintain high level of morale among the public. Under this programme, all children under 5 years are given 2 doses of Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) in month of December and January every year until polio is eradicated.
Polio (Poliomyelitis) is a highly infectious viral disease, which mainly affects young children below age of 5. It is transmitted from person-to-person. It mainly spreads through faecal-oral route (e.g. contaminated water or food). After entering body, it multiplies in the intestine, from where it can invade the nervous system and can cause paralysis. Its initial symptoms include fever, fatigue, headache, vomiting, stiffness in the neck, and pain in limbs. In some cases, it causes permanent paralysis. There is no cure for polio, it can only be prevented by immunization.
The Union Government has launched inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) injection as part of the global polio endgame strategy in New Delhi.
The vaccine was launched by the Union Minister of Health and Family Welfare J P Nadda in New Delhi.
It was launched as part of India’s next step in Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) to fight against polio virus in the country.
IPV injections do not contain an attenuated vaccine virus which is used in oral polio vaccine (OPV). Thus it reduces the chances of Vaccine Derived Polio Virus (VDPV).
- The launching of IPV would enable children to get double protection from polio i.e. orally and in the form of injection.
- UIP initially will cover six states including Uttar Pardesh , Madhya Pardesh , Bihar, Assam, Punjab and Gujarat in the first phase.
- By April 2016, Union Government would switch to IPV alongside the oral polio vaccine (OPV) to eradicate polio virus in the country.
- Henceforth, as part of India’s efforts to boost its polio immunization programme babies getting their third dose of OPV now would be administered an injection with IPV.
It should be noted that India was certified polio-free country on 27 March 2014, but the immunization programme continues since two of its neighbours Afghanistan and Pakistan still remain polio-endemic countries.
About Polio virus
- Poliomyelitis (polio) is a highly infectious viral disease, which mainly affects young children below age of 5.
- Transmission: The virus is transmitted from person-to-person. It mainly spreads through the faecal-oral route (e.g. contaminated water or food). After entering body, it multiplies in the intestine, from where it can invade the nervous system and can cause paralysis.
- Symptoms: Initial symptoms include fever, fatigue, headache, vomiting, stiffness in the neck, and pain in the limbs. In some cases, it causes permanent paralysis. There is no cure for polio virus, it can only be prevented by immunization.