polio Current Affairs - 2019
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World Polio Day is observed annually across the world on 24 October. The day seeks to create awareness about the hazards of the crippling Polio disease.
To mark this day, Rotary International has organised numerous events across different countries. It is also planning to make world Polio free by 2019 by stepping up its vaccination campaigns.
Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) which was launched in 1988 has played pivotal role in eradication of wild poliovirus. When the initiative was launched the wild poliovirus existed in 125 countries. Now, it exists in two countries Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Till 2012, Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country was the reservoir of more than half of the Polio cases in the world. But in 2015, World Health Organization (WHO) has removed Nigeria from the list of Polio endemic countries.
- World Polio Day has been established by Rotary International to commemorate the birth of Jonas Salk who had led the first team of researchers which had developed a vaccine against poliomyelitis.
- This development had led to widespread use of this inactivated poliovirus vaccine and subsequently use of the oral poliovirus, developed by Albert Sabin.
- It had led to the establishment of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988 which has helped to reduce polio worldwide by 99%.
- Poliomyelitis (polio) is a highly infectious viral disease, which mainly affects young children below age of 5.
- Transmission: The virus is transmitted from person-to-person. It mainly spreads through the faecal-oral route (e.g. contaminated water or food).
- After entering body, it multiplies in the intestine, from where it can invade the nervous system and can cause paralysis.
- Symptoms: Initial symptoms include fever, fatigue, headache, vomiting, stiffness in the neck, and pain in the limbs. In some cases, it causes permanent paralysis.
- Treatment: There is no cure for polio, however it can only be prevented by immunization.
Government has launched Mission Indradhanush to immunise kids against 7 vaccine-preventable diseases.
Mission Indradhanush depicts 7 colours of the rainbow which aims to cover all those children by 2020 who are either unvaccinated, or are partially vaccinated against 7 vaccine preventable diseases.
- 7 preventable diseases: diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, measles and hepatitis B.
It was launched by Union Health Minister J P Nadda on the occasion of National Good Governance Day.
Key facts about Mission Indradhanush
- It will be focused and systematic immunization drive through a catch-up campaign mode aiming to cover all the children who have been left out or missed out for immunization.
- Under this scheme government will conduct 4 special vaccination campaigns between January and June 2015 with intensive planning and monitoring .
- These campaigns will be planned and implemented according to the learning’s of the successful implementation of the polio programme.
- It will be implemented in 2 phases in 2015. First phase will cover 201 districts. While, second phase will cover 297 districts.
- For the first phase government has identified 201. These are high-focus districts in the country which have nearly 50 per cent of all unvaccinated or partially vaccinated children. Under this mission, these districts will be targeted intensively in order to improve the routine immunization coverage.
- Among the 201 districts, 82 districts are in four BHIMARU states i.e Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh. In these 82 districts nearly 25 per cent children are unvaccinated or partially vaccinated children.
- WHO, UNICEF, Rotary International and others will be donor partners for Mission Indradhanush. While the mass media, interpersonal communication will play crucial role to monitor and evaluate the sturdy mechanisms for implementing this mission.
Tags: BHIMARU states • Current Affairs - 2017 • diphtheria • Government policy • Government Schemes • hepatitis B • measles • Ministry of Health and Family Welfare • Mission Indradhanush to immunise kids agaainst 7 vaccine-preventable diseases • polio • tetanus • tuberculosis • whooping cough