Saudi Arabia Current Affairs - 2019
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Iraq ratified the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), a treaty which provides for nuclear disarmament and bans nuclear weapons explosions at any place under the jurisdiction or control of the signatory. However, CTBT cannot enter into force until eight specific nations don’t ratify it.
What is CTBT?
Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is an international accord which seeks to ban all nuclear explosions in all environments for military or civilian purposes. It was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on September 10, 1996, but it has not entered into force due to the non-ratification of eight specific states.
What is required for the CTBT to come into force?
There is a list of 44 states in Annex 2 of the CTBT. These “Annex 2 states” are states that participated in the CTBT’s negotiations between 1994 and 1996 and possessed nuclear power reactors or research reactors at that time. The treaty has to be ratified by these states. The treaty has been ratified only by 36 states including France, Russia and Britain.
Which are the eight States who have not signed/ratified CTBT?
These nations are China, Egypt, Iran, Israel and the United States who have signed but not ratified the Treaty and India, North Korea and Pakistan who have not signed it.
What is the status of CTBT in the Middle East?
In the Middle East, Egypt, Israel, Iran, and Yemen have not yet ratified the CTBT, while Saudi Arabia and Syria remain outside as non-signatories. Efforts to create a zone in the Middle East free of nuclear weapons have failed to make progress, with a hoped-for meeting in late 2012 failing to take place.
Larsen & Toubro (L&T) and its associated partners have received an order valued at Rs 8,250 crore to develop a metro project in Saudi Arabia. The contract is a part of Rs 35,000 crore-project which is to be completed in 4 years. Larsen & Toubro won its biggest ever overseas order in Saudi.
The contract includes construction of bridges, tunnels, elevated and underground stations, depots, roads, systems for closed circuit television and public announcements, SCADA with allied systems for the first-of-its-kind project in the Kingdom.