Scheduled Tribes Current Affairs - 2019
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The protect and safeguarding the land rights and other rights of Scheduled Tribes who are the most marginalized, isolated and deprived population, following constitutional and legislative measure have been put in place:
- The Scheduled Tribes (STs) and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (OTFDs) (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 is being implemented to recognize and vest the forest rights and occupation in forest land to forest dwelling Scheduled Tribes.
- Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013 (RFCTLARR Act, 2013 in short) safeguards against displacement of Scheduled Tribes. Special provisions have been made for under Sections 41 and 42 of the RFCTLARR Act, 2013 to protect the interests of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
- The Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996 mandates that the Gram Sabha or the Panchayats at the appropriate level shall be consulted before making the acquisition of land in the Scheduled Areas or development projects and before resettling or rehabilitating persons affected by such projects in the Scheduled Areas.
- Constitutional provisions under Schedule – V also provide for safeguards against displacement of the tribal population because of land acquisitions etc. The Governor of the State, having scheduled Areas, is empowered to prohibit or restrict the transfer of land from tribals and regulate the allotment of land to members of the Scheduled Tribes in such cases
- The Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987 provides for legal services to members of Scheduled Tribes.
- Wrongfully dispossessing members of Scheduled Castes or Scheduled Tribes from their land or premises or interfering with the enjoyment of their rights, including forest rights, over any land or premises or water or irrigation facilities or destroying the crops or taking away the produce therefrom amount to atrocities and are subject to punishment under the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989.
Further, the Ministry of Tribal Affairs is implementing several schemes and programmes for upliftment and development of Scheduled Tribes in the country.
The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) has given its approval for the revamped Eklavya Model Residential Schools (EMRSs) scheme. Under this, Eklavya Model Residential Schools (EMRSs) will be set up in every block where Scheduled Tribes population is more than 50% and has at least 20,000 tribal persons.
A budget of Rs. 2,242 crore during 2018-19 and 2019-20 has been approved by the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) for rolling out this scheme.
The EMRSs will be run by an Autonomous Society, on the lines of Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti. This society will be under the Ministry of Tribal Affairs.
462 new Eklavya Model Residential Schools (EMRSs) will be set up as 102 EMRSs are already running in the country.The new scheme aims to improve the construction quality and provide better facilities for the students. For this, the support of construction cost of EMRS has been enhanced from the current Rs. 12 crore to Rs. 20 crore.
About Eklavya Model Residential Schools:
- Ekalavya Model Residential School (EMRS) is a central government scheme for setting up of model residential schools for Scheduled Tribes all over India.
- The Union Ministry of Tribal Affairs runs the EMRS scheme in the country.
The EMRS scheme has an objective to increase the literacy level among the Tribals of India by imparting quality education to children of Scheduled Tribes.