Social indicators Current Affairs - 2019
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For the first time in 16 years, Odisha has achieved highest decline in Infant Mortality Rate (IMR). This decline is far better than the national average.
According to the fourth round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), Odisha’s IMR has come down by 29% between 2005 and 2015 which is highest trend in the country. It was 96 per 1000 births in 2000 has been reduced to 40 in 2015-16.
- The IMR in the state has gone down by 25 points between NFHS 3 (2005-06) and NFHS 4 (2015-16), as against national average of 16.
- According to NFHS-4, the Odisa’s IMR is better than six major States Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Assam, Rajasthan and Jharkhand. In 2000, Odisha was only above Chhattisgarh in the national ranking.
- Institutional delivery in Odisha was recorded at 85.4% in NFHS-4 as against the national average of 78.9%. Similarly, 78.6% children (aged 12 and 23 months) were fully immunised as against national average of 62%.
- State also has achieved increase in institutional deliveries, family planning and antenatal care of mothers. It has as also registered significant decline in under-five mortality rate, anaemia and malnourishment.
Reasons for decline of IMR in Odisha
The impressive and sharp decline in IMR and overall improvement in different health indicators of the State in the last 16 years was achieved due to several initiatives of the government. It includes IMR Reduction Mission and Nabajyoti scheme launched in 2001, which had carried through initiatives to strengthen institutional deliveries, improve antenatal check-ups, immunisation and family planning coverage. Besides, state’s MAMATA scheme, a conditional cash transfer scheme for pregnant women and lactating mothers also has made a significant contribution in ensuring safe deliveries and healthy infants.
The Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare unveiled last National Family Health Survey-4 (NFHS-4) for 2015-16.
It has shown positive trends in key health indicators, including an decline in infant mortality rate (IMR) and improvement in sex ratio at birth during 2015-16.
The survey was conducted after collecting information from 6 lakh households, 7 lakh women and 1.3 lakh men. For the first time it provides district level estimates.
Key Highlights from NFHS-4
- Infant Mortality Rate (IMR): It has declined from 57 to 41 per 1,000 live births between NFHS-3 (2005-06) and NFHS-4.
- IMR has declined substantially in almost all the states during the last decade. It dropped by more than 20% in Tripura, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh, Rajasthan and Odisha.
- It reflects that concerted efforts and focussed interventions in the sector can translate to improved outcomes.
- Sex ratio at birth (number of females per 1,000 males): It has improved from 914 to 919 at the national level over the last decade. It is highest in Kerala (1,047), followed by Meghalaya (1,009) and Chhattisgarh (977). Haryana also witnessed a significant increase from 762 to 836.
- Institutional births: Increased by 40 percentage points from 38.7% in NFHS-3 to 78.9% in NFHS 4. There was an increase of 34.1% institutional births in public facility, while Assam has experienced more than a 40 percentage point increase.
- Proportion of women who received at least 4 antenatal care visits for their last birth has increased by 14 percentage points from 37% to 51.2% over the decade (2005-15).
- Total Fertility Rate (TFR): It also has declined to 2.2 children per woman from 2.7 in NFHS-3. Thus, it is moving closer to target level of 2.1.
- There was considerable decline in TFR in each of the 30 states/UTS, maximum decline was observed in Uttar Pradesh (1.1 child), Nagaland (1.0 child), Arunachal Pradesh (0.9 child) and Sikkim (0.9 child). Bihar failed to register substantial decline.
- Full immunization coverage: Children within the age of 12-23 months have been fully immunized (BCG, measles and 3 doses each of polio) and DPT increased by 18 percentage points to 62% in NFHS-4 from 44% in NFHS-3.
- It has increased in Punjab, Bihar and Meghalaya by 29 percentage point each. In Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh it increased by 28 percentage points each.
- Underweight children: There was a decline by 7 percentage points, a consequence of improved child feeding practices and focus on nutritional aspects of children.
- There was “substantial” decline of anaemia from 69% in NFHS-3 to 58% in NFHS-4 among children aged 6-59 months.
- The maximum decrease was reported in Assam with 34 percentage points followed by Chhattisgarh (30% points), Mizoram (26% points) and Odisha (20% points).
- Contraceptive prevalence rate among currently married women: It has increased by 7 percentage points from NFHS-1 (41%) to NFHS-2 (48%), 8 percentage points from NFHS-2 to NFHS-3 (56%).
- However, the rate decreased by 2 percentage points from NFHS-3 (56%) to NFHS-4 (54%), but pills and condom usage have shown increasing trend.