Socio-Economic Current Affairs - 2019
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The registrar general of India has released new data showing significant decline in maternal mortality ratio of the country. The relevant facts and data are as follows:
Maternal Mortality and MMR
According to WHO, Maternal Mortality is death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes. Maternal Mortality Rate is death of such women per 100,000 live births. Maternal and child mortality and morbidity are taken as important health indicators because they reflect the state of female healthcare.
Global Maternal Mortality Rate
The global MMR for year 1990 was 385. In 2015, this number stood at 216, showing a drop of 44% in 25 years. Most of the global maternal deaths occur in Sub-Saharan Africa (66%), followed by South Asia (22%).
Maternal Mortality Rate in India and its states
In the 2011-13 period, India’s MMR was 167. As per the recently released data, the MMR during 2014-16 period stands at 130.
Among states, the three best and worst states and their respective MMR are shown below:
Significant decline (246 to 188) was seen in the so called Empowered Action Group (EAG) states and Assam. EAG states are are those states where economic and development indicators are a particular concern. Such states include Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh.
Maternal Mortality Ratio is one of the important measures of the quality of safe deliveries and maternal care and India has lagged behind China, Maldives and Sri Lanka in its neighborhood.
India ranked 118th out of 157 countries on the United Nations’ World Happiness Index (WHI) 2016.
It was revealed by the fourth World Happiness Report 2016 published by the Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN), a global initiative for the UN.
Key Highlights of Report
- Top 10 countries: Denmark (1st), Switzerland (2nd), Iceland (3rd), Norway (4th) and Finland (5th), Canada (6th), Netherlands (7th), New Zealand (8th), Australia (9th) and Sweden (10th).
- 5 Least happiest countries: Rwanda (152nd), Benin (153rd), Afghanistan (154th), Togo (155th), Syria (156th) and Burundi (157th).
- Among BRICS: Brazil (17th), Russia (56th), China (83rd), South Africa (116th) and India (118th).
- India’s Neighbours: Nepal (78th), China (83rd), Bhutan (84th), Pakistan (104th), Bangladesh (110th), Sri Lanka (117th) and Afghanistan (154th).
- For the first time, the report has given a special role to the measurement and consequences of inequality in the distribution of well-being among countries and regions.
- Countries where there was less inequality were happier overall. Top five countries have strong social security systems
About World Happiness Report
- The report aims at influencing government policy and is prepared based upon study undertaken by Gallup World Poll.
- The World Happiness Index ranks nations based upon score of different variables on a scale running from 0 to 10. These variables include real GDP per capita, healthy life expectancy, corruption levels and social freedoms
- India was ranked 111th in 2013 and 117th in 2015.