South Asia Current Affairs - 2019
Category Wise PDF Compilations available at This Link
According to the World Investment Report 2019, released by United Nation Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows to India grew by 6% to USD 42 billion in 2018. India was ranked among the top 20 host economies for FDI inflows in 2017-18.
Key Findings of Report
FDI to India: It grew by 6% to $42 billion in 2018 saw strong inflows in manufacturing, financial services sectors, communication and cross-border merger and acquisition activities.
FDI inflow to South Asia: It increased 3.5% to $54 billion dollars. It highlighted that the prospects for FDI inflows into South Asia are largely determined by expectations of growing investment into India. India has historically accounted for 70% to 80% of inflows that came to the South Asian region. Among other countries in South Asian region, FDI flows to Sri Lanka and Bangladesh rose to record level, to $1.6 billion and $3.6 billion respectively, but Pakistan witnessed a 27% decline in investment to $2.4 billion.
It was established in 1964 for integrated treatment of trade and development and related issues in areas of investment, finance, technology, enterprise development and sustainable development. It is organ of UN General Assembly (UNGA). There are 195 members in UNCTAD. Its mandate is to maximize trade, investment and development opportunities of developing countries and assist them in their efforts towards integrating into world economy on an equitable basis without any bias.
Recently, an international collaboration of 20 research organizations led by Hyderabad-based International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) identified climate resilient genes in chickpea. They cracked genetic code to develop climate resilient chickpea with genes for heat tolerance and genes for drought tolerance.
- Scientists study based on complete genome sequencing of 429 chickpea lines from 45 different countries, identified that chickpea has four important genes for heat tolerance and three important genes for drought tolerance.
- Application: Identification of these climate-resistant genes will help in developing newer chickpea varieties which can tolerate temperatures up to 38°C.
- The identification of other genes with important agronomic traits (high yield, test weight, kernel weight, maturity, plant height, and lodging resistance) will help in increasing crop yield and providing better resistance to pests and diseases.
- It is an annual legume of Fabaceae family and is highly rich in protein.
- It is also known by name of gram, Bengal Gram, Garbanzo, Garbanzo bean, and Egyptian pea.
- It is a cool season crop. In India, it is sown in September-October and harvested in January-February. In 2016, India produced 64% of world’s total chickpeas.
- More than 90% of chickpea cultivation area is in South Asia, including India as it is important in Indian and Middle Eastern cuisine.
- It originated in Mediterranean/south-west Asia and migrated to south Asia.
- Globally, more than 70% of its yield is lost due to drought and increasing temperatures.
ICRISAT: The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics
- It is an international non-profit organization whichundertakes agricultural research for rural development in the semi-arid tropics (SAT) region. It was established in 1972,
- and its charter was signed by the Food Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the
- United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). It is headquartered in Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
- It performs crop improvement research on crops like Chickpea, Pigeonpea, Groundnut, Pearl millet, Sorghum, Finger Millet and Small millets.
- The Semi-Arid Tropics (SAT) region: It is a region characterised by highly variable, low to medium rainfall, poor soils, and lack of irrigation, thus considered to be a less favoured area (LFA).
Tags: Bengal Gram • Chickpea • Climate Resilient • Egyptian pea • FAO • Genes • Genome Sequencing • Hhyderabad • ICRISAT • India • International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics • Science • Semi-Arid Tropics • South Asia • UNDP