Sterilization Current Affairs - 2020

ATULYA: Microwave sterilizer to disintegrate COVID-19 developed

The Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, deemed university operating under Defence Research and Development Organization has designed microwave sterilizer called “ATULYA”.

Highlights

The Sterilizer is used to disintegrate COVID-19 virus. The sterilizer uses differential heating to disintegrate the virus in the range of 56 degree Celsius to 60 degree Celsius. The weight of the designed sterilizer is 3 kgs. The time of sterilization depends on the size of the object. The device is cost effective and can be run in fixed and portable installations as well.

What is Sterilization?

Sterilization is the process by which different forms of life, especially micro organisms such as fungi, virus, bacteria, spores and other Eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium are eliminated, killed, removed or deactivated.

Sterilization is different from sanitization, pasteurization, disinfection. The main methods used in sterilization includes dry heat, pressure, gas vapor, ultra violet radiation, chlorine dioxide gas, etc.

There are other methods of sterilization as well. This includes dry heat, flaming, incineration, tyndallization, glass bead sterilizers, chemical sterilization. The chemical sterilization is done using ethylene oxide or nitrogen dioxide or ozone, formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide. Sterilization is also done using radiation. The safety of the irradiation is regulated by the United Nations International Atomic Energy Agency.

Differential Heating

Differential Heating is the process that creates two different temperatures to disintegrate the virus.

Women bear uneven burden of family planning through sterilisation: NHM report

According to 11th report of Common Review Mission of National Health Mission (NHM), women bear uneven burden in family planning as they account for more than 93% of sterilisations in the country. The report was based on latest data from Health Management Information System (HMIS) where states upload data on various parameters of NHM including sterilisations. CRM is an external evaluation of the flagship NHM.

Key Highlights of Report

Women continue to bear uneven burden of terminal methods of family planning and sterilisation. In 2017-18 (till October) of the total 14,73,418 sterilisation procedures 93.1 % were female sterilisation (tubectomies) and only 6.8 % were male sterilisation (vasectomy).

This is marginal improvement from earlier years when women accounted for 98% of all sterilisation in the country. In 2015-16, of the total 41,41,502 sterilisations across India under government programmes, 40,61,462 were tubectomies. In 2014-15, out of 40,30,409 sterilisations, 39,52,043 were tubectomies.

The vasectomy or male sterilisation services still remain inadequately available across the country. Despite efforts to make male sterilisation more acceptable, it was found that non-scalpel vasectomy services are available in very few facilities and uptake is negligible in all states.

Vasectomy

Vasectomy or male sterilisation is process of cutting or tying vas deferens which is duct that carries sperm from testes to urethra so that it cannot be released for fertilisation. It is easier process than tubectomy (female sterilisation) which involves blocking or clamping of fallopian tubes so eggs do not reach uterus.

Reasons for low male sterilisation

Reluctance of Indian men to undergo vasectomy or sterilisation stems from history, social taboo and logistical limitations. Forced sterilisations during emergency have given this procedure of family planning bad name. Moreover, misinformation about it robbing men of their strength has made it social taboo and fact that there are no male health workers means these impressions cannot be corrected. Due to male dominate nature of India society, it is also difficult for ASHA worker in village to talk to men about sterilisation.