Switzerland Current Affairs - 2019
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The Nobel Prize in physics has been announced to be given to physicists Francois Englert of Belgium and Peter Higgs of Britain for their theoretical discoveries on how subatomic particles acquire mass.
What is the special contribution of Englert and Higgs to physics?
Both the scientists have been credited for their theoretical works on Higgs boson which they theorized in 1960s. They proposed a mechanism to explain why the most basic building blocks of the Universe have mass. Their theories were confirmed last year by the discovery of the so-called Higgs particle or ‘God-particle’, also known as the Higgs boson, at the famous CERN(European Organization for Nuclear Research) laboratory in Geneva. But it would still take decades for the scientists at CERN to confirm its existence.
The research wing of Indian Railways, Research Development Standard Organisation (RDSO) is in the process of developing a highly fuel efficient, Common Rail Electronic Direct Fuel Injection (CReDI) system for its fleet of diesel locomotives. Indian Railways has taken a global lead in initiating development of the CReDI for its fleet of diesel locomotives. In this direction, an Indian manufacturer has set up a joint venture with a reputed firm from Switzerland for design and development of the system under overall supervision of RDSO.
What is CReDI?
Common rail direct fuel injection is a modern variant of direct fuel injection system for petrol and diesel engines. Indian railway is working on diesel engines. In the common rail systems, fuel at a high pressure (1600 bars) is injected into the cylinder by using a magnetic valve. It is possible to have multiple injections in the cylinder thereby reducing stress on the cylinder parts and reduce fuel consumption and emissions at the same time. Common Rail technology has been heralded as break-through invention for diesel engines across the globe.
How would CReDI help?
The Common Rail Electronic Direct Fuel Injection (CReDI) system would enable fuel savings in the range of 3 to 4% and emissions reductions by about 20-30% are expected. Once the systems are implemented on the complete fleet of locomotives, savings will be about Rs. 500-600 crore annually.
Research Development Standard Organisation (RDSO):
RDSO is the research wing of Indian Railways.Railway Testing and Research Centre (RTRC) was setup in 1952 at Lucknow owing to a phenomenal increase in country’s industrial and economic activity and a subsequent increase in the demand for rail transportation.