Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Current Affairs - 2019
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Researchers at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai found new function for stress buster Serotonin. The serotonin may help treat neurological diseases. The results of this study were published in journal named ‘Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences’ (PNAS).
- Its chemical name is 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). It is a monoamine neurotransmitter which means, it is a chemical that signals between neurons.
- It is a chemical in brain that makes us calm therefore, an increase in 5-HT may enhance individuals capacity to respond to stress.
- Functions: At level of an organism, serotonin is known to be helpful in coping with stress. But, underlying mechanism of its neuro-protective role was unknown.
- Significance of recent discovery: It shows that serotonin is involved in generation of new mitochondria (powerhouse of the cell) in neurons, increased cellular respiration and fuel (ATP) in cell.
- Applications: So far, Serotonin’s newly identified function was only studied in mice and rats. If found to be true in humans, it may have important medical implications like serotonin signalling could be used to prevent mitochondrial abnormalities and neuronal loss. At present, neuronal loss is a major cause of neurodegenerative diseases such as in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Besides this, abnormal mitochondrial functions are known to cause or contribute to neuronal death.
Tags: 5-HT • Alzheimer • Mitochondria • Monoamine Neurotransmitter • Neurodegenerative Diseases • Parkinson’s. • Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences • Serotonin • Tata Institute of Fundamental Research
The Ministry of Personnel has notified the appointment of Ajit Kumar Mohanty as Director of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre for the period of three years. Currently, he is the Director, Physics Group in BARC and Director, Saha Institute Institute of Nuclear Physics.
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) is India’s premier nuclear research facility headquartered in Trombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra.
The Atomic Energy Establishment, Trombay (AEET) was established by the government of India in 1954 to consolidate all the research and development activity for nuclear reactors and technology under the AEET.
As a result, all the scientists and engineers engaged in the fields of reactor design and development, instrumentation, metallurgy and material science etc. were transferred with their respective programmes from the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) to AEET, with TIFR retaining its original focus for fundamental research in the sciences. After the demise of Dr Homi Jehangir Bhabha in 1966, AEET was renamed Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC).
Over the years, BARC has emerged as the multi-disciplinary research centre with extensive infrastructure for advanced research and development. Its R&D covers the entire spectrum of nuclear science, engineering and related areas. BARC’s core mandate is to sustain peaceful applications of nuclear energy, primarily for power generation.
Tags: AEET • Ajit Kumar Mohanty • Atomic Energy Establishment • BARC • Bhabha Atomic Research Centre • Homi Jehangir Bhabha • Maharashtra • Mumbai • Physics Group • Saha Institute Institute of Nuclear Physics • Tata Institute of Fundamental Research • TIFR • Trombay