Tribes Current Affairs - 2020

Santhali used in Rajya Sabha for the first time

On December 6, 2019, MP Sarojni Hembram from Odisha for the first time spoke in a tribal language called Santhali. She raised the matter of public importance during the zero hour. Also, Srimati Sarojini demanded Bharat Ratna for Pundit Raghunath Murmu, the Santhali scholar who introduced Ol Chiki script for the language in 1925.

Santhali Language

The language is predominantly spoken by the North Mundari Group of the Austroasiatic-Munda family. The language is spoken in parts of West Bengal, Jharkhand, Assam, Odisha and also in Nepal and Bangladesh. The Ol Chiki script for the language was created by Raghunath Murmu in 1925.

Schedule 8 of the Constitution

Santhali language was included in the Schedule 8 of the constitution through the 92nd Constitutional Amendment act, 2003. Along with the language, 3 other languages were included namely Maithili, Bodo, Dori.

In 2017, Shika Mandi became the first Indian to host a show in Santhali language.

Santal Tribes

The Santals are the third largest tribal group in India. They are called Horhopon ko (Sons of Man), Hor Ko or Manjhi. They are classified as Scheduled Tribes in the states of Jharkhand, Odisha and West Bengal but not in Assam.

In 1855, they protested widely for their mistreatment by the landlords, traders and money lenders. It was called the Santal Rebellion.

Solung festival begins in Arunachal Pradesh

The annual socio-religious Solung festival of Adi tribe has started in Arunachal Pradesh.

Solung is 5-day long agro-based festival is celebrated every year by the Adi tribe in the first week of September.

Key Facts

  • The Solung festival reflects the socio-religious features of the Adi tribe of Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Adi or ‘Bangni-Boker lhoba ’people are the major collective tribes living in the himalayan hills of ‘Nyingchi’ prefecture in Arunachal Pradesh.
  • To mark the celebrations, people perform various rituals and make offerings to gods and goddesses during the celebration and pray for a bumper harvest.
  • During the celebration, Mithun (Great Indian Bison) which is considered as holy animal and occupies an important religious significance among the Adis is sacrificed.
  • People present gifts of meat and Apong (rice beer) to neighbours and relatives on the occasion thus cementing family and social relationships.
  • The festival also reflects care and protection of animals which are vital components of their family and social life of Adi tribe.