tuberculosis Current Affairs - 2019
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According to World Health Statistics 2018 released by World Health Organisation (WHO), India saw estimated 211 cases of tuberculosis (TB) per 1,00,000 people in 2016. India has pledged to eradicate tuberculosis by 2025, five years ahead of global target set by WHO. WHO’s annual World Health Statistics reports present most recent health statistics for WHO Member States.
Key highlights of World Health Statistics 2018
Tuberculosis (TB): Globally, incidence of TB registered 19% decline over 16-year period from 173 new and relapse cases per 1,00, 000 population in year 2000 to 140 per 1,00,000 population in 2016. It remains high-burden disease and progress in fighting it, although impressive, is still not fast enough to close persistent gaps.
Cases reported in India were lower than neighbouring Bangladesh and Myanmar which recorded 221 and 361 cases respectively in this category. However, Nepal and Bhutan recorded fewer number of TB cases per 1,00,000 population than India
Maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in India: It was 174 per 1,00,000 births in 2015. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for 2030 is to lower MMR for all countries to less than 70 per 1,00,000 births.
Air pollution: Deaths due to air pollution was concerned, age-standardised mortality rate attributed to household and ambient air pollution (per 1,00,000 population) in 2016 was 184.3% in India.
Per capita health expenditure in India: It was around US $63 in 2015, way lower than China (US $426), while in Pakistan it was $38.
The World Tuberculosis Day (WTD) is observed every year on March 24 to raise public awareness about the global epidemic of Tuberculosis (TB) and efforts to eliminate the disease. WTD is observed to commemorate discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, bacillus (bacteria) causing TB on 24th March, 1882 by German microbiologist Robert Koch. This discovery had opened the way towards diagnosing and curing TB.
The theme of World TB Day 2018 is “Wanted: Leaders for a TB-free world”. It focuses on building commitment to end TB, not only at political level with Heads of State and Ministers of Health, but at all levels from Governors, Mayors, parliamentarians and community leaders to people affected with TB, civil society advocates, health workers, doctors or nurses, NGOs and other partners.
This is critical theme, given political importance of upcoming United Nations General Assembly high-level meeting on TB this year, which will bring together Heads of State in New York. It follows on from a very successful Ministerial Conference on Ending TB in Moscow on 16-17 November, 2017 which resulted in high-level commitments from Ministers and other leaders from 120 countries to accelerate progress to end TB.
TB is disease caused by bacteria “Mycobacterium tuberculosis” that most often affect the lungs. The disease is spread from person to person through the air. It commonly affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body. It is the second biggest killer disease worldwide next only to HIV/AIDS. World Tuberculosis Day (WTD) is one of eight official global public health campaigns observed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Observance of the day provides opportunity to shine the spotlight on disease and mobilize political and social commitment for accelerate progress to end TB.