Turkmenistan Current Affairs - 2020
Five recognized nuclear weapon states- China, France, Russia, UK and USA inked the Protocol to the Central Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zone (CANWFZ) Treaty in New York, marking a major positive development in the global non-proliferation efforts. The treaty was signed on the sidelines of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Preparatory Committee Meeting at the United Nations.
The CANWFZ Treaty was inked on September 8, 2006 in Semipalatinsk by the five Central Asian nations – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. It came into force on March 21, 2009. As chair of the CANWFZ Treaty, Kazakhstan has steered the negotiations with the five nuclear states on behalf of its Central Asian neighbors.
Central-Asian parties to the CANWFZ treaty aim to make the region a nuclear-weapon free zone. For the zone to be recognized internationally, it also requires to get the so-called negative guarantees from the five nuclear weapon countries, meaning legally-binding assurances not to use nuclear weapons against the parties of the treaty and not to use the threat of the use of nuclear weapons against them. The Protocol signed on May 6, 2014 in New York provides all these guarantees. The Protocol awaits ratification by the parliaments of the signing states enter into effect.
The CANWFZ Treaty complements the NPT and strengthens the international nonproliferation regime by forbidding, among other things, the development and testing of nuclear weapons within Central Asia. Under the CANWFZ Treaty, the five Central Asian zone states may not allow the stationing of nuclear weapons within their territories. The Central Asian states are also mandated to adopt the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Additional Protocol, which provides the IAEA with increased access and power to ensure that all nuclear activities are used only for peaceful purposes.
Other Nuclear-Weapons Free Zones in the World
Apart from the newly created Central-Asian zone, there are four other nuclear weapons free zones in the world, including in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, South-East Asia and the South Pacific. The Central Asian zone is different from the other four in a way that it is the only such zone fully located in the northern hemisphere, the only zone adjoining two nuclear weapon states, Russia and China, and the only zone where nuclear weapons once existed, until Kazakhstan relinquished the weapons it inherited from the Soviet Union in the early 1990s.
Tags: Africa • Asia • China • Current Affairs 2014 • France
While Pakistan is keen to import gas from India through a 110-Km pipeline, it has asked India to reconsider the high price it is offering. On the other hand, India has sought sovereign payment guarantees from Pakistan before signing an export contract to supply LNG.
Indo-Pak gas pipeline project:
Pakistan with a total electricity generation capacity of 20,000 MW, is going through a serious energy and power shortage and is interested in importing gas from India to fulfill its rising energy requirements. With Iran-Pakistan gas pipeline project hanging in balance due to pressure from the U.S., the deal with India becomes quite significant. India has also conveyed its willingness to export gas to Pakistan. As per the proposed plan, GAIL India will supply natural gas through the cross border pipeline passing through Wagah-Attari border. Gas in its liquid form will be imported in Maharashtra or Gujarat and then moved through GAIL’s existing pipeline network till Jalandhar. The pipeline would start from Jalandhar in Punjab leading through Attari. The pipeline will be 110-km long and India intends to supply 400 million cubic feet of gas per day to Pakistan. Islamabad plans to take 1-1.5 million tonnes of LNG.
The pipeline project is also viewed as a feasibility study for the Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India (TAPI) pipeline through which both Pakistan and India propose to import natural gas from the Turkmenistan.
Tags: Afghanistan • Current Affairs 2013 • Economy • Gujarat [GPSC] • India-International Relations