Typbar Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Current Affairs - 2020

Pakistan-First Country to introduce WHO approved India made Typhoid Vaccine

Pakistan becomes the first country to introduce WHO approved typhoid vaccine. The Vaccine is to be used in southern Sindh province as more than 10,000 cases of Typhoid were documented since 2017.

Highlights

  • A four-week campaign will be conducted targeting 10 million children of age nine months to 15 years. The campaign is launched with the support of Geneva based Gavi Vaccine alliance. The Gavi Vaccine Alliance is backed by several global organization such as World Bank, WHO, UNICEF, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to lower vaccine costs for poor countries.
  • In 2017 around 70% of deaths due to typhoid were among children. This is mainly because, Pakistan spends meagre amount of its national resources on public health
  • Pakistan is suffering from drug-resistant typhoid fever since November 2016. The Salmonella Typhi bacteria that causes Typhoid is called a super-bug in the country as it has developed resistance towards old drugs.

Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine

The TCV was recommended by WHO in 2018 for infants and children over 6 months of age in typhoid-endemic countries. As compared to earlier vaccines, TCV provides long-lasting protection and requires fewer dosages.

The Vaccine is funded by the United Nations Children Fund (UNCF).

Typhoid

  • Typhoid impacts young children in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Middle-East.
  • In these regions, the disease if caused due to unsafe water and sanitation systems and inadequate drinking water.

India’s Contributions

Bharat Bio-Tech, an Indian Vaccines and Bio-therapeutics Manufacturer in 2018 received Pre-Qualification tag from WHO for the TPV. Through the tag, the firm gained access to global public vaccination programmes. In February 2019, the Pakistan Government approached the company through the GAVI alliance. Under this, Pakistan is now receiving the vaccines.

Bharat Biotech’s Typbar-TCV: WHO approves Indian typhoid vaccine for global use

The World Health Organisation (WHO) has given its pre-qualification to Typbar Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine (TVC) developed by Hyderabad based Bharat Biotech for global use.

Typbar TCV is world’s first typhoid vaccine clinically proven to be administered to children from six months of age to adults, and confers long-term protection against typhoid fever. It has been evaluated in Human Challenge Studies at Oxford University.

Significance

The WHO pre-qualification enables procurement and supplies of this life-saving vaccine to UNICEF, Pan-American Health Organisation (PAHO) and GAVI (vaccine alliance) supported countries. This also paves the way for WHO member countries to introduce the Typbar TCV into their immunization programs.

TCVs are innovative products having longer-lasting immunity than older vaccines and require fewer doses. They can be given to young children through routine childhood immunization programs. TCVs have been recommended by WHO’s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (WHO-SAGE).

Typhoid

Typhoid fever is caused by bacterium Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi). It infects humans due to contaminated food and beverages from sewage and other infected humans. Its symptoms include fever, fatigue, headache, abdominal pain, and diarrhoea or constipation.

Currently, a third of global population is at risk of typhoid fever, which results in loss of work and wages, lowered pregnancy outcomes and impaired the physical and cognitive development of children. According to International Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) estimates in 2016, there were approximately 12 million cases of typhoid fever resulting in around 130,000 deaths. Urbanisation and climate change have potential to further increase global burden of typhoid.