UN Current Affairs

Indian Army contributes 2,300 personnel for UN peace keeping mission in South Sudan

Indian Army is contributing approximately 2300 personnel to support United Nations Peacekeeping Missions to South Sudan  (UNMISS) in order to bring peace and normalcy in the war-torn country.

It includes deployment of seven Garhwal Rifles Infantry battalion group of the Indian Army. The deployment of Indian peacekeepers in South Sudan is under Chapter VII which entails Peace Enforcement.

Key Facts

This is for first time troops hailing fromGarhwal region have been nominated to deploy in United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS). The unit will be in operational control of sensitive Jonglei state of South Sudan with detachment at Juba, its headquarters in Bor County and air maintained company group at Pibor County where armed conflicts and ethnic violence is on the rise.

Background

South Sudan had gained independence from Sudan in 2011, making it the newest nation in the world. Civil war had broken out in infant nation in 2013. The UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) is newest UN Peacekeeping Mission. India, with 2,237 troops, is the highest contributor in terms of troops to UNMISS. In addition to India, 53 nations from around the world have contributed troops to the peacekeeping mission.

India and UN Peacekeeping

The Indian Army is the largest cumulative troop contributor to United Nations Peacekeeping Missions mandated to maintain stability and negotiate a peace settlement in turbulent regions of the world. So far India has provided almost 200,000 troops in nearly 50 of the 71 UN peacekeeping missions over the past six decades, including 13 of the current 16 missions. Last year, 7,606 Indian peacekeepers were deployed in UN missions.  Moreover, India has suffered 163 fatalities since the peacekeeping operations began in 1948, the most by any country.

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India has largest diaspora population in world: UN Report

According to UN World Migration Report (2018) Indian diaspora is world’s largest, with slightly more than 15.6 million people from India living overseas. The report was released by International Organisation for Migration.

The Indian diaspora constitutes 6% of the total number of international migrants (people living outside the country of their birth), which was estimated at 243 million in 2015.

Key Facts

According to the report, Mexico has the second largest diaspora after India followed by Russia (3rd), China (4th), Bangladesh (5th) and Pakistan (6th). The Gulf nations house biggest share of the Indian diaspora — nearly 3.5 million or 22% of total Indian diaspora.

The global migrants figure has risen by 10% over that recorded in 2010. In other words, out of global population of 7.3 billion, one of every 30 people was migrant in 2015.  However, if computed as percentage of world’s population, the growth of diaspora has been largely static, from 3.2% in 2010 to 3.3% in 2015.

Notably, people in working age group, between 20 to 64 years, account for nearly 72% i.e. significant chunk of international migrant population. Nearly half of all the international migrants worldwide in 2015 were born in Asia, primarily originating from India, China and other South Asian countries

Since 1970, the US has been the main destination for international migrants. The number of foreign-born people residing in US has almost quadrupled from fewer than 12 million in 1970 to 46.6 million in 2015 of which nearly 2 million are of Indian origin.

International Organisation for Migration

IOM is an intergovernmental organization that provides services and advice concerning migration to governments and migrants, including refugees, internally displaced persons and migrant workers.

IOM was established in 1951 as Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM) to help resettle people displaced by World War II. It was granted Permanent Observer status to UN General Assembly in 1992. Cooperation agreement between IOM and the UN was signed in 1996.

IOM works in four broad areas of migration management: Migration and development, Facilitating migration, Regulating migration and Forced migration. It has 166 member states, a further 8 states holding observer status and offices in over 100 countries, It has more than 9,500 staff and 450 offices worldwide.

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