UN General Assembly Current Affairs
International Anti-Corruption Day (IACD) is observed every year across world on December 9 to raise public awareness of corruption and what people can do to fight it. Observance of this day aims to promote and strengthen measures to prevent and combat corruption more efficiently and effectively. It also highlights role of United Nations Convention against Corruption in combating and preventing it.
Corruption is serious societal crime that undermines social and economic development in all societies. No country, region or community is immune from corruption. According to United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), every year $1 trillion is paid in bribes while an estimated $2.6 trillion are stolen annually through corruption – a sum equivalent to more than 5% of global GDP. In developing countries, funds lost to corruption are estimated at 10 times amount of official development assistance.
International Anti-Corruption Day was instituted by UN General Assembly (UNGA) by passing resolution 58/4 of October 31, 2003. It was adopted to raise people’s awareness of corruption and role of United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) in combating and preventing it. The UNCAC is the first legally binding, international anti-corruption instrument that provides a chance to mount a global response to corruption.
World Soil Day is celebrated every year on 5th of December by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of United Nations. Observance of this day aims to communicate messages on importance of soil quality for food security, healthy ecosystems and human well-being. It also advocates for sustainable management of soil resources. The Theme for year 2018 is ‘Be the Solution to Soil Pollution’. It aims to raise awareness and call people to stop soil pollution.
Importance of soil
Soil is the upper layer of earth. It is mixture of organic and inorganic matter, in which plants grow. It is a finite natural resource. On a human time-scale it is non-renewable. According to FAO, soil holds three times as much carbon as atmosphere and can help to meet challenges of a changing climate. 95% of our food comes from soil and 33% of global soils are already degraded.
International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS) had adopted resolution proposing 5th of December as World Soil Day in 2002 to celebrate importance of soil as critical component of natural system and as vital contributor to human wellbeing. Later in June 2013 FAO Conference unanimously endorsed World Soil Day and requested official adoption at 68th UN General Assembly. In December 2013, 68th UNGA declared 5th of December as the World Soil Day.