UNEP Current Affairs - 2020

India’s first underwater Metro: To begin in March 2022 in Kolkata

The first underwater Metro is being constructed in Hooghly river. The project is awaiting clearance of 2.8 million USD from the Indian Railways.


The Hooghly Metro is one of the oldest Metro in the country. It was started in 1984. The new under water tunnel will carry 20% of city’s population and will cross the river in less than a minute. Currently it takes 20 minutes in the ferry to cross the river and an hour to cross the Howrah bridge.

Infrastructure and Environment

While the infrastructural developments are increasing exponentially, it is important to check their effects on environment. According to World Wide Funds, by 2050 the Earth will hold 75% more infrastructure than that it does today. Therefore, it is essential to study their Environmental impacts and take necessary alternate actions to protect the environment.

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

According to United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), EIA is the evaluation of environmental impacts and also cultural, human-health and socio-economic impacts of a proposed project.

EIA in India

EIA in India began in 1976. However, it was an administrative decision till 1994. In 1994 Environmental (Protection) act, 1986 was amended to provide legislative support to EIA process

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World Economic Forum: 1 trillion trees and report on Password role in Cyber Crime

The World Economic Forum began on January 21, 2020 in Davos. The highlight of the forum this year is over its initiative to plant 1 trillion trees in the next decade and also to equip 1 billion people with fourth industrial revolution. The forum has released a report on the role of passwords in cyber crimes. According to the report, fourth industrial revolution reduces cost spent on maintaining passwords and their secrecy.

Highlights: 1 Trillion Trees

The World Economic Forum has joined the “Tree Trillion Campaign” that was launched by UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) in 2006 as “Billion Tree Campaign”. In 2011, the project was handed over to Plant for the Planet (a NGO).

The forum has launched 1t.org platform in order to support the campaign. Through the platform, the forum aims to bring together the leading businesses, governments, civil societies and entrepreneurs all over the world.

The initiative is being supported by the US, though it secluded itself from the initiative earlier.

Highlights: Role of Password

On January 22, 2020, the World Economic Forum released report on passwords and the cost involved in maintaining their secrecy. According to the report, cybercrime is to cost 2.9 billion USD to the global economy. Around 50% of IT Help Desk costs are spent on password resets. Therefore, it is essential to shift the password-based system towards Artificial Intelligence and other fourth Industrial Revolution technologies.

The report suggests top 5 technologies for password protection. It includes behavioural analytics, biometrics, QR codes, zero-knowledge proofs and security keys.

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