UNSC Current Affairs - 2020
Iran announced it will pull out of some commitments under 2015 international nuclear agreement signed with world powers, called Joint Comprehensive Plan Of Action (JCPOA).
About Iran’s Partial Withdrawal
In a move of partial withdrawal from JCPOA Iran will pull out of some commitments such as:
- It will stop suppressing its stocks of enriched uranium and heavy water, as these are needed by certain types of reactor for nuclear fission to take place.
- Reason: As per Iran, such action is required as European Union (EU) and other countries did not have power to resist US pressure. Also, such measures are necessary to secure Iran’s rights and bring back balance after United States exited from agreement in 2018.
- Iran’s Supreme National Security Council gave 60 days to remaining countries of deal, to implement their commitments, mainly in fields of banking and oil. It referred to commitments made by Russia, China, France, Germany and Britain, to lift sanctions on Iran in return if it curbs its nuclear activities.
- The decision comes after US dispatched an aircraft carrier strike group to Middle East.
- As per Iran this path is not that of war, but is of diplomacy with a new language and a new logic.
- China resolutely opposes unilateral US sanctions against Iran and called on all parties to uphold Iranian nuclear pact.
- Russia has also denounced US pressure and stands by Iran nuclear deal.
- Britain in contradiction has not welcomed Iran’s decision, as it could lead to new Western sanctions.
US Stand on Issue
- In May 2018, US President Donald Trump announced that US will unilaterally pull out of from JCPOA, re-imposing US sanctions on Iran. His administration found the deal to be “defective to the core”.
- US also announced to cancel waivers to countries (including India) who continue to purchase oil from Iran.
Reasons given for Withdrawal:
- JCPOA does not have binding restrictions on Iran’s ballistic missile programme and it does nothing to prevent Iran from sponsoring terrorism in its region.
- Most restrictions have a sunset-clause, which means that over the years JCPOA’s provisions will become less strict and this will enable Iran to move towards nuclear-weapon capability.
- It is an international nuclear agreement signed in 2015, between Iran and the P5+1. The P5+1 includes five permanent UNSC’s members (P5): China, Russia, France, United Kingdom (UK), and United States; and (+1) Germany.
- Under it, Iran agreed to make certain changes to its nuclear programme which included stopping export of enriched uranium stock, in return for United Nations (UN), European Union (EU) and the US revoking their sanctions against it.
- These Nuclear related sanctions on Iran were lifted by US from 1 January 2016.
G D Robert Govender, an Indian–origin journalist in South Africa was honoured with V K Krishna Menon Award 2019 in United Kingdom for his contribution as pioneer of decolonised journalism. He became first person to be honoured with this award posthumously. The award was given by ‘V K Krishna Menon Institute’ on 123rd birth anniversary of renowned Indian diplomat and politician V K Krishna Menon.
About G D Robert Govender
He was born in South Africa in August 1930. During his career in journalism spanning nearly 60 years, he had developed international repute as campaigning journalist and author and was also first journalist to call for international boycott of whites-only sports teams of South Africa.
His books include ‘The Martyrdom of Patrice Lumumba’ which had exposed role of Western intelligence agencies in murder of Congolese independence leader. He died in London, UK in 2016.
About V K Krishna Menon
He was India’s first High Commissioner to Britain (United Kingdom). He served as Defence Minister of India from April 1957 to October 1962. He holds the record for longest speech (8 hours) before UN Security Council (UNSC) while defending India’s sovereignty over Kashmir.