Zoological Survey of India Current Affairs - 2019
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Scientists from Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) have discovered three new species of eel along northern Bay of Bengal coast. They are Gymnothorax pseudotile, Gymnothorax visakhaensis and Enchelycore propinqua.
Gymnothorax pseudotile: It was discovered at the Digha coast of the Bay of Bengal. It has dark brown and white dots on the dorsal side. It is about 1 feet to 1.5 feet long.
Gymnothorax visakhaensis: It was discovered from the Visakhapatnam coast of the Bay of Bengal. It is uniformly brown. It is about a foot long.
Enchelycore propinqua: It was also discovered from Visakhapatnam coast. It is reddish brown body mottled with irregular creamy white spots. It is the smallest of three measuring less than a foot.
Eels are found mostly at bottom of rivers and seas. There are about 1,000 species of eels identified so far across the world. In India, there are around 125 species of eels identified. Eel species belonging to Muraenidae family, referred commonly as Moray eels, recorded about 200 species of which more than 30 species are found in India.
With these new discoveries, Bay of Bengal coast has yielded at least 5 new species of eel. In 2016, Gymnothorax indicus, an edible species of eel was discovered. In 2015, a short brown unpatterned moray eel, named Gymnothorax mishrai (Bengal moray eel) was discovered.
Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) has published first of its kind compendium titled Fauna of Sundarban Biosphere Reserve in Indian Sundarbans. It has consolidated and updated information of faunal diversity of Sundarbans.
Indian segment of Sundarbans is part of UNESCO World Heritage site. It forms part of Ganga-Brahmaputra delta across 9,630 sq. km, distributed among 104 islands. It has largest tidal halophytic mangrove forest in the world.
The compendium catalogues entire faunal diversity of Sundarban Biosphere Reserve covering 9,630 sq. km spread over 19 blocks in North 24 Parganas and South 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal. According to it, fragile Sundarbans ecosystem region hosts 2,626 animal species that come under zoological kingdom of Animalia, and 140 under more primitive Protista. It also includes diverse 25 phyla.
Animal and Mammalian species: Famous Bengal tigers adapted to aquatic conditions have been documented. 50 mammalian species are also documented including the Asian small-clawed Otter, Gangetic Dolphin, Grey and Marsh Mongoose. Wild Rhesus Monkey, only primate found in Sunderbans is also documented.
The mammal numbers are declining in Sunderbans due to pressure on habitat from people and natural threats that have shrunk mangrove swamp habitat. Two Rhinos, Swamp deer, Barking deer and Hog deer and Asiatic Wild Water Buffalo no more are not found in Sundarbans.
Bird species: There are 356 species of birds, including raptors (birds of prey). Other birds found here are Osprey, Brahminy Kite, White-Bellied Sea Eagle, Rose-ringed parakeets, flycatchers and warblers. Kingfishers are found abound and Sundarbans has nine of them.
Fish and amphibian species: The mangrove ecosystem covers about 350 species of fish. Cartilaginous fish make up 10.3%. The IUCN conservation status shows 6.3% fish are near-threatened and 4.85% are threatened. Also, there are 173 molluscs. Moreover, Crustaceans — crabs, shrimp and prawns — constitute 334 species. Besides, ten species of frogs and toads are found. There are 11 turtles, including the famous Olive Ridley, Hawskbill sea turtles and most threatened freshwater River Terrapin.
Insect and Reptile species: The region has 753 insect species. Of these, 210 are butterflies and moths. Crocodile, 13 lizards including three species of Monitor Lizards and five Geckos are also found. The rivers, creeks channels and islands together harbour about 30 snake species including monocled cobra, Russell’s viper, common and banded kraits.
Zoological Survey of India (ZSI)
ZSI is India’s apex organization on animal taxonomy. It was established in 1916. Its objective is to promote the survey, exploration, research and documentation on various aspects of animal taxonomy in Indian subcontinent. It also seeks advancement of knowledge on animal taxonomy. It has been declared as the designated repository for the National Zoological Collection as per section 39 of the National Biodiversity Act, 2002.