ZSI Current Affairs - 2020

7 new species of water treaders belonging to genus Mesovelia discovered

Scientists from Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) have discovered seven new species of water treaders belonging to genus Mesovelia. Water treaders are semi-aquatic insects that can walk or run on surface of water. These new discoveries include Mesovelia andamana is from Andaman Islands, M. isiasi and M. bispinosa are from Meghalaya, M. tenuia and M. occulta from Tamil Nadu and M. dilatata and M. brevia live both in Meghalaya and Tamil Nadu.

About new species

The newly described species belong to genus Mesovelia. Their size ranges from 1.5 mm to 4.5 mm. They are equipped with hydrophobic setae (bristles) on their legs. The combination of water surface tension and hydrophobic setae prevents them from sinking. They are hemimetabolous insects i.e. they do not have larval stage i.e., they go from egg to nymph to adult. They are pale green with silver-white wings with black veins on basal half which make them stand out over green mat of aquatic weeds. They are found on freshwater bodies such as lakes, pools, streams, ponds, rocks with moss and sometimes on estuaries.

Andaman & Nicobar Islands home to tenth of India’s fauna species: ZSI

Andaman & Nicobar Islands are to home to tenth of India’s fauna species and hosts 1,067 endemic faunal species found nowhere else. It was revealed by Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) publication titled Faunal Diversity of Biogeographic Zones: Islands of India. This publication for the first time has come up with database of all faunal species found on the island. It has database of species found in particular category of animals and also highlights most vulnerable among them.

Highlights of ZSI publication

Total area of A&N Islands, which comprises of 572 islands, islets and rocky outcrops, is about 8,249 sq. km has around total 11,009 species. It comprises only 0.25% of India’s geographical area but is home to more than 10% of country’s fauna species. Thus, presence of such large number of species in such small area makes A&I Islands one of the richest ecosystems and biodiversity hot spots in India. Tourism, illegal construction and mining are posing threat to the islands’ biodiversity, which is already vulnerable to volatile climatic factors. Some of the species in A&N Islands are restricted to very small area and thus more vulnerable to any anthropogenic threat.

Marine fauna: Of the ten species of marine fauna found on islands, dugong/sea cow and Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin are both classified as Vulnerable under IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Terrestrial mammalian species: 46 terrestrial mammalian species are found. 3 species have been categorised as Critically Endangered —Jenkin’s shrew (C. jenkinsi), Andaman shrew (Crocidura andamanensis) and Nicobar shrew (C. nicobarica). Five species are listed as Endangered, 9 species as Vulnerable, and 1 species as Near Threatened by IUCN.

Birds: Endemism is quite high in A&N islands, with 36 among 344 species of birds found only on the islands. Many of these bird species are placed in IUCN Red List of threatened species and also under the Wildlife Protection Act (WPA).

Marine diversity: Eight species of amphibians and 23 species of reptiles are endemic to the islands. They are at high risk of being threatened.

Marine faunal diversity: It includes coral reefs and its associated fauna. In all, 555 species of scleractinian corals (hard or stony corals) are found in the island ecosystem, all which are placed under Schedule I of the WPA.

Zoological Survey of India (ZSI)

It is India’s apex organization on animal taxonomy. Its objective is to promote survey, exploration, research and documentation on various aspects of animal taxonomy in Indian subcontinent. It also seeks advancement of knowledge on animal taxonomy. It was established in 1916 and headquartered in Kolkata. It has been declared as designated repository for National Zoological Collection as per section 39 of the National Biodiversity Act, 2002.